Cobalt-Doped Black TiO2 Nanotube Array as a Stable Anode for Oxygen Evolution and Electrochemical Wastewater Treatment

  • Yang Yang
    Yang Yang
    Division of Engineering and Applied Science, Linde-Robinson Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125, United States
    More by Yang Yang
  • Li Cheng Kao
    Li Cheng Kao
    Department of Geosciences, National Taiwan University, P.O. Box 13-318, Taipei 106, Taiwan
    More by Li Cheng Kao
  • Yuanyue Liu
    Yuanyue Liu
    Department of Mechanical Engineering and Texas Materials Institute, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712, United States
    More by Yuanyue Liu
  • Ke Sun
    Ke Sun
    Divisions of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125, United States
    More by Ke Sun
  • Hongtao Yu
    Hongtao Yu
    School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, People’s Republic of China
    More by Hongtao Yu
  • Jinghua Guo
    Jinghua Guo
    Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720, United States
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Santa Cruz, California 95064, United States
    More by Jinghua Guo
  • Sofia Ya Hsuan Liou
    Sofia Ya Hsuan Liou
    Department of Geosciences, National Taiwan University, P.O. Box 13-318, Taipei 106, Taiwan
  • , and 
  • Michael R. Hoffmann*
    Michael R. Hoffmann
    Division of Engineering and Applied Science, Linde-Robinson Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125, United States
    *E-mail for M.R.H.: [email protected]
Cite this: ACS Catal. 2018, 8, 5, 4278–4287
Publication Date (Web):April 10, 2018
Copyright © 2018 American Chemical Society
ACS AuthorChoicewith CC-BYlicense
Article Views
Read OnlinePDF (3 MB)
Supporting Info (1)»


TiO2 has long been recognized as a stable and reusable photocatalyst for water splitting and pollution control. However, it is an inefficient anode material in the absence of photoactivation due to its low electron conductivity. To overcome this limitation, a series of conductive TiO2 nanotube array electrodes have been developed. Even though nanotube arrays are effective for electrochemical oxidation initially, deactivation is often observed within a few hours. To overcome the problem of deactivation, we have synthesized cobalt-doped Black-TiO2 nanotube array (Co-Black NTA) electrodes that are stable for more than 200 h of continuous operation in a NaClO4 electrolyte at 10 mA cm–2. Using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, and DFT simulations, we are able to show that bulk oxygen vacancies (Ov) are the primary source of the enhanced conductivity of Co-Black. Cobalt doping both creates and stabilizes surficial oxygen vacancies, Ov, and thus prevents surface passivation. The Co-Black electrodes outperform dimensionally stable IrO2 anodes (DSA) in the electrolytic oxidation of organic-rich wastewater. Increasing the loading of Co leads to the formation of a CoOx film on top of Co-Black electrode. The CoOx/Co-Black composite electrode was found to have a lower OER overpotential (352 mV) in comparison to a DSA IrO2 (434 mV) electrode and a stability that is greater than 200 h in a 1.0 M KOH electrolyte at a current density of 10 mA cm–2.

Supporting Information

Jump To

The Supporting Information is available free of charge on the ACS Publications website at DOI: 10.1021/acscatal.7b04340.

  • Details of DFT calculations and additional results of XRD, XPS, SEM-EDS, TEM, two-point solid state measurements, EIS, stability tests, and activity evaluation (PDF)

Terms & Conditions

Most electronic Supporting Information files are available without a subscription to ACS Web Editions. Such files may be downloaded by article for research use (if there is a public use license linked to the relevant article, that license may permit other uses). Permission may be obtained from ACS for other uses through requests via the RightsLink permission system:

Cited By

This article is cited by 85 publications.

  1. Heng Dong, Weilai Yu, Michael R. Hoffmann. Mixed Metal Oxide Electrodes and the Chlorine Evolution Reaction. The Journal of Physical Chemistry C 2021, 125 (38) , 20745-20761.
  2. Banghai Liu, Wanqian Guo, Wenrui Jia, Huazhe Wang, Qishi Si, Qi Zhao, Haichao Luo, Jin Jiang, Nanqi Ren. Novel Nonradical Oxidation of Sulfonamide Antibiotics with Co(II)-Doped g-C3N4-Activated Peracetic Acid: Role of High-Valent Cobalt–Oxo Species. Environmental Science & Technology 2021, 55 (18) , 12640-12651.
  3. Jun Mei, Tiantian Wang, Dongchen Qi, Jianjun Liu, Ting Liao, Yusuke Yamauchi, Ziqi Sun. Three-Dimensional Fast Na-Ion Transport in Sodium Titanate Nanoarchitectures via Engineering of Oxygen Vacancies and Bismuth Substitution. ACS Nano 2021, 15 (8) , 13604-13615.
  4. Yi Zhang, Yang Yang, Shasha Yang, Estefanny Quispe-Cardenas, Michael R. Hoffmann. Application of Heterojunction Ni–Sb–SnO2 Anodes for Electrochemical Water Treatment. ACS ES&T Engineering 2021, 1 (8) , 1236-1245.
  5. Jagabandhu Patra, Shu-Chi Wu, Ing-Chi Leu, Chun-Chen Yang, Rajendra S. Dhaka, Shigeto Okada, Hsiu-Liang Yeh, Chieh-Ming Hsieh, Bor Kae Chang, Jeng-Kuei Chang. Hydrogenated Anatase and Rutile TiO2 for Sodium-Ion Battery Anodes. ACS Applied Energy Materials 2021, 4 (6) , 5738-5746.
  6. Siwen Wang, Shasha Yang, Estefanny Quispe, Hannah Yang, Charles Sanfiorenzo, Shane W. Rogers, Kaihang Wang, Yang Yang, Michael R. Hoffmann. Removal of Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria and Genes by UV-Assisted Electrochemical Oxidation on Degenerative TiO2 Nanotube Arrays. ACS ES&T Engineering 2021, 1 (3) , 612-622.
  7. Guan Zhang, Juzhuan Ruan, Tingting Du. Recent Advances on Photocatalytic and Electrochemical Oxidation for Ammonia Treatment from Water/Wastewater. ACS ES&T Engineering 2021, 1 (3) , 310-325.
  8. Hui Lin, Runlin Xiao, Ruzhen Xie, Lihui Yang, Caiming Tang, Rongrong Wang, Jie Chen, Sihao Lv, Qingguo Huang. Defect Engineering on a Ti4O7 Electrode by Ce3+ Doping for the Efficient Electrooxidation of Perfluorooctanesulfonate. Environmental Science & Technology 2021, 55 (4) , 2597-2607.
  9. Qiyu Lian, Amitava Roy, Orhan Kizilkaya, Daniel Dianchen Gang, William Holmes, Mark E. Zappi, Xu Zhang, Hong Yao. Uniform Mesoporous Amorphous Cobalt-Inherent Silicon Oxide as a Highly Active Heterogeneous Catalyst in the Activation of Peroxymonosulfate for Rapid Oxidation of 2,4-Dichlorophenol: The Important Role of Inherent Cobalt in the Catalytic Mechanism. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2020, 12 (51) , 57190-57206.
  10. Xiaowen Zhang, Duoduo Zhang, Dezhi Tan, Yuehui Xian, Xiaofeng Liu, Jianrong Qiu. Highly Defective Nanocrystals as Ultrafast Optical Switches: Nonequilibrium Synthesis and Efficient Nonlinear Optical Response. Chemistry of Materials 2020, 32 (23) , 10025-10034.
  11. Wenjuan Li, Robert Liang, Norman Y. Zhou, Zihe Pan. Carbon Black-Doped Anatase TiO2 Nanorods for Solar Light-Induced Photocatalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue. ACS Omega 2020, 5 (17) , 10042-10051.
  12. Amandine Guiet, Tran Ngoc Huan, Christophe Payen, Florence Porcher, Victor Mougel, Marc Fontecave, Gwenaël Corbel. Copper-Substituted NiTiO3 Ilmenite-Type Materials for Oxygen Evolution Reaction. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2019, 11 (34) , 31038-31048.
  13. Jonghun Lim, Yang Yang, Michael R. Hoffmann. Activation of Peroxymonosulfate by Oxygen Vacancies-Enriched Cobalt-Doped Black TiO2 Nanotubes for the Removal of Organic Pollutants. Environmental Science & Technology 2019, 53 (12) , 6972-6980.
  14. Limin Xiao, Taifeng Liu, Min Zhang, Qiuye Li, Jianjun Yang. Interfacial Construction of Zero-Dimensional/One-Dimensional g-C3N4 Nanoparticles/TiO2 Nanotube Arrays with Z-Scheme Heterostructure for Improved Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering 2019, 7 (2) , 2483-2491.
  15. Shilin Zhang, Mei Long, Peng Zhang, Jie Wang, Hongxiu Lu, Hui Xie, Aidong Tang, Huaming Yang. Crystallographic orientation and morphology control of Sb2Se3 to sensitize TiO2 nanotube arrays for enhanced photoelectrochemical performances. Chemical Engineering Journal 2022, 429 , 132091.
  16. Xuedong Du, Mehmet A. Oturan, Minghua Zhou, Nacer Belkessa, Pei Su, Jingju Cai, Clément Trellu, Emmanuel Mousset. Nanostructured electrodes for electrocatalytic advanced oxidation processes: From materials preparation to mechanisms understanding and wastewater treatment applications. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 2021, 296 , 120332.
  17. Mohammad Zahir Akbari, Yifeng Xu, Zhikun Lu, Lai Peng. Review of antibiotics treatment by advance oxidation processes. Environmental Advances 2021, 5 , 100111.
  18. Suman Sekhar Sahoo, Sriram Mansingh, Pradeepta Babu, Kulamani Parida. Black titania an emerging photocatalyst: review highlighting the synthesis techniques and photocatalytic activity for hydrogen generation. Nanoscale Advances 2021, 3 (19) , 5487-5524.
  19. Fan Zhang, Weilai Wang, Lei Xu, Chengzhi Zhou, Yanglong Sun, Junfeng Niu. Treatment of Ni-EDTA containing wastewater by electrochemical degradation using Ti3+ self-doped TiO2 nanotube arrays anode. Chemosphere 2021, 278 , 130465.
  20. Xubin Qian, Lei Xu, Yunqing Zhu, Haiying Yu, Junfeng Niu. Removal of aqueous triclosan using TiO2 nanotube arrays reactive membrane by sequential adsorption and electrochemical degradation. Chemical Engineering Journal 2021, 420 , 127615.
  21. Jiehong Cheng, Tao Lu, Shouqiang Huang, Guobiao Li, Jun Wang, Feng Kong, Qinglin Cheng, Yaheng Zhang. Recovery of cobalt from spent lithium-ion batteries as the dopant of TiO2 photocatalysts for boosting ciprofloxacin degradation. Journal of Cleaner Production 2021, 316 , 128279.
  22. Luchen Ai, Yue Wang, Yunlei Zhou, Huanshun Yin. Photoelectrochemical biosensor for N6-methyladenosine detection based on enhanced photoactivity of TiO2-X and MoS2 nanocomposite. Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry 2021, 895 , 115444.
  23. Astrid Kupferer, Alexander Holm, Andriy Lotnyk, Stephan Mändl, Stefan G. Mayr. Compositional Patterning in Carbon Implanted Titania Nanotubes. Advanced Functional Materials 2021, 31 (35) , 2104250.
  24. Fenghua Chen, Zhaoqian Zhang, Weiwei Liang, Xiaoyun Qin, Zhen Zhang, Liying Jiang. Synthesis of Co4S3/Co9S8 nanosheets and comparison study toward the OER properties induced by different metal ion doping. Chinese Chemical Letters 2021, 355
  25. Yangyuan Ji, Junfeng Niu, Dong Xu, Kaixuan Wang, Jacob Brejcha, Seunghyo Jeon, David M Warsinger. Efficient electrocatalysis for denitrification by using TiO2 nanotube arrays cathode and adding chloride ions. Chemosphere 2021, 274 , 129706.
  26. Yue Liu, Di Pang, Luyao Wang, Haiou Song, Rumeng Liu, Shen Hu, Yuliang Shen, Aimin Li, Shupeng Zhang. Electrochemically reduced phytic acid-doped TiO2 nanotubes for the efficient electrochemical degradation of toxic pollutants. Journal of Hazardous Materials 2021, 414 , 125600.
  27. Huizhong Ma, Baofei Hao, Wentao Song, Jinpeng Guo, Mingyuan Li, Lan Zhang. A High-Efficiency TiO2/ZnO Nano-Film with Surface Oxygen Vacancies for Dye Degradation. Materials 2021, 14 (12) , 3299.
  28. Congcong Ni, Yifan Li, Xianzhe Meng, Shuliang Liu, Siyi Luo, Jing Guan, Bo Jiang. Synergistic role of electron-trapped oxygen vacancy and exposed TiO2 [0 0 1] facets toward electrochemical p-nitrophenol reduction: Characterization, performance and mechanism. Chemical Engineering Journal 2021, 411 , 128485.
  29. Yang Yu, Huachang Jin, Qian Li, Xuejiao Zhang, Yue Zhang, Xueming Chen. Pseudocapacitive Ti/RuO2-IrO2-RhOx electrodes with high bipolar stability for phenol degradation. Separation and Purification Technology 2021, 263 , 118395.
  30. Shilong Jiao, Xianwei Fu, Shuangyin Wang, Yong Zhao. Perfecting electrocatalysts via imperfections: towards the large-scale deployment of water electrolysis technology. Energy & Environmental Science 2021, 14 (4) , 1722-1770.
  31. Xiang Bi, Gaohui Du, Abul Kalam, Dongfeng Sun, Yuan Yu, Qingmei Su, Bingshe Xu, Abdullah G. Al-Sehemi. Tuning oxygen vacancy content in TiO2 nanoparticles to enhance the photocatalytic performance. Chemical Engineering Science 2021, 234 , 116440.
  32. Zhongzheng Hu, Jingju Cai, Ge Song, Yusi Tian, Minghua Zhou. Anodic oxidation of organic pollutants: Anode fabrication, process hybrid and environmental applications. Current Opinion in Electrochemistry 2021, 26 , 100659.
  33. Xinye Zhang, Xueyue Zhang, Keting Feng, Xiaoyun Hu, Jun Fan, Enzhou Liu. A carbon membrane-mediated CdSe and TiO 2 nanofiber film for enhanced photoelectrochemical degradation of methylene blue. RSC Advances 2021, 11 (20) , 11872-11881.
  34. Chao Yang, Shanshan Shang, Xiao-yan Li. Fabrication of sulfur-doped TiO2 nanotube array as a conductive interlayer of PbO2 anode for efficient electrochemical oxidation of organic pollutants. Separation and Purification Technology 2021, 258 , 118035.
  35. Aseom Son, Jiho Lee, Changha Lee, Kangwoo Cho, Jaesang Lee, Seok Won Hong. Persulfate enhanced photoelectrochemical oxidation of organic pollutants using self-doped TiO2nanotube arrays: Effect of operating parameters and water matrix. Water Research 2021, 191 , 116803.
  36. Di Pang, Yue Liu, Haiou Song, Duozhe Chen, Weiqing Zhu, Rumeng Liu, Hu Yang, Aimin Li, Shupeng Zhang. Trace Ti3+- and N-codoped TiO2 nanotube array anode for significantly enhanced electrocatalytic degradation of tetracycline and metronidazole. Chemical Engineering Journal 2021, 405 , 126982.
  37. Masoud Sarraf, Bahman Nasiri-Tabrizi, Chai Hong Yeong, Hamid Reza Madaah Hosseini, Saeed Saber-Samandari, Wan Jefrey Basirun, Takuya Tsuzuki. Mixed oxide nanotubes in nanomedicine: A dead-end or a bridge to the future?. Ceramics International 2021, 47 (3) , 2917-2948.
  38. Robert Brüninghoff, Ainoa Paradelo Rodríguez, Ronald P.H. Jong, Jacobus M. Sturm, Uwe Breuer, Caroline Lievens, Adriaan W. Jeremiasse, Guido Mul, Bastian Mei. Electrochemical preparation of defect-engineered titania: Bulk doping versus surface contamination. Applied Surface Science 2021, 539 , 148136.
  39. Dengji Yu, Yunfang Zhang, Fang Wang, Jun Dai. Preparation of ZnO/two-layer self-doped black TiO 2 nanotube arrays and their enhanced photochemical properties. RSC Advances 2021, 11 (4) , 2307-2314.
  40. Shiqi Wang, Zeling Zhang, Wenyi Huo, Xuhai Zhang, Feng Fang, Zonghan Xie, Jianqing Jiang. Single-crystal-like black Zr-TiO2 nanotube array film: An efficient photocatalyst for fast reduction of Cr(VI). Chemical Engineering Journal 2021, 403 , 126331.
  41. So Young Yang, Jiyeon Park, Hye Won Jeong, Hyunwoong Park. Electrocatalytic activities of electrochemically reduced tubular titania arrays loaded with cobalt ions in flow-through processes. Chemical Engineering Journal 2021, 404 , 126410.
  42. Ayat N. El-Shazly, Aiat H. Hegazy, E.T. El Shenawy, Mahmoud A. Hamza, Nageh K. Allam. Novel facet-engineered multi-doped TiO2 mesocrystals with unprecedented visible light photocatalytic hydrogen production. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 2021, 220 , 110825.
  43. Yang Yang. Recent advances in the electrochemical oxidation water treatment: Spotlight on byproduct control. Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering 2020, 14 (5)
  44. Khaled M. Chahrour, F.K. Yam, A.M. Eid, Ahmed Abdel Nazeer. Enhanced photoelectrochemical properties of hierarchical black TiO2-x nanolaces for Cr (VI) photocatalytic reduction. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 2020, 45 (43) , 22674-22690.
  45. Feiran Zhang, Wenjie Wang, Zhi Li, Yikun Kang, Lu Wang, Yang Gao, Lulu Chen, Xiao Zhang, Weiyu Song, Jian Liu, Haodong Tang. The surface structure of β-NiOOH (001) under reaction conditions and its effect on OER activity: An ab initio study. Molecular Catalysis 2020, 493 , 111082.
  46. Xueyue Zhang, Xilin Fan, Xue Wang, Tiantian Deng, Enzhou Liu, Bo Chen. Facile fabrication of Co2P/TiO2 nanotube arrays photoelectrode for efficient methylene blue degradation. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects 2020, 599 , 124875.
  47. Amir Ahmadi, Bernhard Vogler, Yang Deng, Tingting Wu. Removal of meropenem from environmental matrices by electrochemical oxidation using Co/Bi/TiO 2 nanotube electrodes. Environmental Science: Water Research & Technology 2020, 6 (8) , 2197-2208.
  48. Kelei Huang, Chunhu Li, Xiuli Zhang, Xiangchao Meng, Liang Wang, Wentai Wang, Zizhen Li. TiO2 nanorod arrays decorated by nitrogen-doped carbon and g-C3N4 with enhanced photoelectrocatalytic activity. Applied Surface Science 2020, 518 , 146219.
  49. Carles Ros, Teresa Andreu, Joan R. Morante. Photoelectrochemical water splitting: a road from stable metal oxides to protected thin film solar cells. Journal of Materials Chemistry A 2020, 8 (21) , 10625-10669.
  50. T.S. Rajaraman, Sachin P. Parikh, Vimal G. Gandhi. Black TiO2: A review of its properties and conflicting trends. Chemical Engineering Journal 2020, 389 , 123918.
  51. Mohsin Abbas, Tanveer ul Haq, Salman Noshear Arshad, Muhammad Zaheer. Fabrication of cobalt doped titania for enhanced oxygen evolution reaction. Molecular Catalysis 2020, 488 , 110894.
  52. Jonghun Lim, Michael R. Hoffmann. Peroxymonosulfate (PMS) activation on cobalt-doped TiO 2 nanotubes: degradation of organics under dark and solar light irradiation conditions. Environmental Science: Nano 2020, 7 (5) , 1602-1611.
  53. Shuhui Zhou, Shikai Liu, Kai Su, Kunlun Jia. Graphite carbon nitride coupled S-doped hydrogenated TiO2 nanotube arrays with improved photoelectrochemical performance. Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry 2020, 862 , 114008.
  54. Sung Pil Hong, Hansun Yoon, Jaehan Lee, Choonsoo Kim, Seoni Kim, Jiho Lee, Changha Lee, Jeyong Yoon. Selective phosphate removal using layered double hydroxide/reduced graphene oxide (LDH/rGO) composite electrode in capacitive deionization. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 2020, 564 , 1-7.
  55. Gopal Panthi, Oh Hoon Kwon, Yun-Su Kuk, Kapil Raj Gyawali, Yong Wan Park, Mira Park. Ternary Composite of Co-Doped [email protected] Carbon Nanofibers: A Novel Reusable Visible Light-Driven Photocatalyst with Enhanced Performance. Catalysts 2020, 10 (3) , 348.
  56. Abbas Sadeghzadeh-Attar. Photocatalytic degradation evaluation of N-Fe codoped aligned TiO2 nanorods based on the effect of annealing temperature. Journal of Advanced Ceramics 2020, 9 (1) , 107-122.
  57. Dawei Gao, Qingyao Wang, Yuan Chang, Yao Jia, Lili Wang, Chunxia Wang. Solvothermal ion exchange preparation of Bi11VO19 to sensitize TiO2 NTs with high photoelectrochemical performances. Separation and Purification Technology 2020, 233 , 116011.
  58. Zemin Dong, Rendan Zhou, Leyan Xiong, Han Li, Qiang Liu, Longzhen Zheng, Zanru Guo, Zhaoxiang Deng. Preparation of a Ti 0.7 W 0.3 O 2 /TiO 2 nanocomposite interfacial photocatalyst and its photocatalytic degradation of phenol pollutants in wastewater. Nanoscale Advances 2020, 2 (1) , 425-437.
  59. Mohamed M. Fadlallah, Ulrich Eckern. Cation Mono‐ and Co‐Doped Anatase TiO 2 Nanotubes: An Ab Initio Investigation of Electronic and Optical Properties. physica status solidi (b) 2020, 257 (1) , 1900217.
  60. Hanna Sopha, Jan M. Macak. Recent advancements in the synthesis, properties, and applications of anodic self-organized TiO2 nanotube layers. 2020,,, 173-209.
  61. Xin Xu, Jingju Cai, Minghua Zhou, Xuedong Du, Ying Zhang. Photoelectrochemical degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid using electrochemically self-doped Blue TiO2 nanotube arrays with formic acid as electrolyte. Journal of Hazardous Materials 2020, 382 , 121096.
  62. Jelena Radjenovic, Luis Baptista-Pires. Advanced Electrochemical Processes for the Elimination of Pharmaceutical Compounds in Contaminated Waters. 2020,,, 327-347.
  63. Jie Fu, Ning Liu, Lefu Mei, Libing Liao, Dina Deyneko, Jiayang Wang, Yaning Bai, Guocheng Lv. Synthesis of Ce-doped Mn3Gd7−xCex(SiO4)6O1.5 for the enhanced catalytic ozonation of tetracycline. Scientific Reports 2019, 9 (1)
  64. Sung Pil Hong, Seonghwan Kim, Nayeong Kim, Jeyong Yoon, Choonsoo Kim. A short review on electrochemically self-doped TiO2 nanotube arrays: Synthesis and applications. Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering 2019, 36 (11) , 1753-1766.
  65. Jingju Cai, Minghua Zhou, Yuwei Pan, Xuedong Du, Xiaoye Lu. Extremely efficient electrochemical degradation of organic pollutants with co-generation of hydroxyl and sulfate radicals on Blue-TiO2 nanotubes anode. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 2019, 257 , 117902.
  66. Kangwoo Cho, Seonggeun Lee, Hyeonjeong Kim, Hyung-Eun Kim, Aseom Son, Eun-ju Kim, Mengkai Li, Zhimin Qiang, Seok Won Hong. Effects of reactive oxidants generation and capacitance on photoelectrochemical water disinfection with self-doped titanium dioxide nanotube arrays. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 2019, 257 , 117910.
  67. Amir Ahmadi, Tingting Wu. Electrocatalytic reduction of nitrobenzene using TiO2 nanotube electrodes with different morphologies: Kinetics, mechanism, and degradation pathways. Chemical Engineering Journal 2019, 374 , 1241-1252.
  68. Shuhui Zhou, Shikai Liu, Kai Su, Kunlun Jia. Facile synthesis of Ti3+ self-doped and sulfur-doped TiO2 nanotube arrays with enhanced visible-light photoelectrochemical performance. Journal of Alloys and Compounds 2019, 804 , 10-17.
  69. Dawei Gao, Shixin Zheng, Lili Wang, Chunxia Wang, Han Zhang, Qingyao Wang. SILAR preparation of visible-light-driven TiO2 NTs/Ag2WO4-AgI photoelectrodes for waste water treatment and photoelectric conversion. Separation and Purification Technology 2019, 224 , 308-314.
  70. Yuanzhen Zhou, Rongrong Cui, Yuan Dang, Yang Li, Yue Zou. Doping controlled oxygen vacancies of ZnWO4 as a novel and effective sensing platform for carbendazim and biomolecule. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical 2019, 296 , 126680.
  71. Mabrook S. Amer, Mohamed A. Ghanem, Prabhakarn Arunachalam, Abdullah M. Al-Mayouf, Sultan M. Hadadi. Bifunctional Electrocatalyst of Low-Symmetry Mesoporous Titanium Dioxide Modified with Cobalt Oxide for Oxygen Evolution and Reduction Reactions. Catalysts 2019, 9 (10) , 836.
  72. Guangying He, Jinhui Zhang, Yun Hu, Zhaogao Bai, Chaohai Wei. Dual-template synthesis of mesoporous TiO2 nanotubes with structure-enhanced functional photocatalytic performance. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 2019, 250 , 301-312.
  73. Chenghao Mo, Huixian Wei, Tongjun Wang. Fabrication of a self‐doped TiO 2 nanotube array electrode for electrochemical degradation of methyl orange. Journal of the Chinese Chemical Society 2019, 66 (7) , 740-747.
  74. Jia Jia, Peng Xue, Xiaoyun Hu, Yishan Wang, Enzhou Liu, Jun Fan. Electron-transfer cascade from [email protected] core-shell quantum dot accelerates photoelectrochemical H2 evolution on TiO2 nanotube arrays. Journal of Catalysis 2019, 375 , 81-94.
  75. Yin Xu, Rasin Ahmed, Qiyuan Lin, Giovanni Zangari. (Photo) electrochemical water oxidation at anodic TiO2 nanotubes modified by electrodeposited NiFe oxy-hydroxides catalysts. Electrochimica Acta 2019, 308 , 91-98.
  76. Changchang Ma, Xin Gao, Tao Wang, Rongru Chen, Zhi Zhu, Pengwei Huo, Yang Liu, Yongsheng Yan. Construction of a novel ternary composite of Co-doped CdSe loaded on biomass carbon spheres as visible light photocatalysts for efficient photocatalytic applications. Dalton Transactions 2019, 48 (20) , 6824-6833.
  77. Xiqing Liu, Zhiping Zhou, Yang Lu, Tao Wang, Pengwei Huo, Yongsheng Yan. Increasing visible-light absorption for photocatalysis with black 2D Bi4Ti3O12 nanosheets. Advanced Powder Technology 2019, 30 (5) , 1043-1050.
  78. Mengkun Tian, Chenze Liu, Jingxuan Ge, David Geohegan, Gerd Duscher, Gyula Eres. Recent progress in characterization of the core–shell structure of black titania. Journal of Materials Research 2019, 34 (07) , 1138-1153.
  79. Xiaoliu Wang, Jianling Zhao, Tiantian Xiao, Zhongwei Li, Xixin Wang. Preparation and properties of Co3O4-doped TiO2 nanotube array electrodes. Journal of Applied Electrochemistry 2019, 49 (3) , 305-314.
  80. Qingyao Wang, Congcong Sun, Zhiyuan Liu, Xinying Tan, Shixin Zheng, Han Zhang, Yujie Wang, Shanmin Gao. Ultrasound-assisted successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction synthesis of Cu2O cubes sensitized TiO2 nanotube arrays for the enhanced photoelectrochemical performance. Materials Research Bulletin 2019, 111 , 277-283.
  81. Qingyao Wang, Zhiyuan Liu, Shaohua Zhang, Yuming Cui, Shanmin Gao, Yubao Wang. Hydrothermal deposition of Cu2O-Ag nanoparticles co-sensitized TiO2 nanotube arrays and their enhanced photoelectrochemical performance. Separation and Purification Technology 2019, 211 , 866-872.
  82. Ronald Vargas, David Carvajal, Brunella Galavis, Alberto Maimone, Lorean Madriz, Benjamín R. Scharifker. High-Field Growth of Semiconducting Anodic Oxide Films on Metal Surfaces for Photocatalytic Application. International Journal of Photoenergy 2019, 2019 , 1-15.
  83. Yang Yang, Lin Lin, Leda Katebian Tse, Heng Dong, Shaokun Yu, Michael R. Hoffmann. Membrane-separated electrochemical latrine wastewater treatment. Environmental Science: Water Research & Technology 2019, 5 (1) , 51-59.
  84. Yuxin Li, Rong Fu, Xiangdong Wang, Xiaoling Guo. Preparation of core–shell nanostructured black nano-TiO 2 by sol–gel method combined with Mg reduction. Journal of Materials Research 2018, 33 (24) , 4173-4181.
  85. Yin Ye, Harry Bruning, Xiaolu Li, Doekle Yntema, Huub H.M. Rijnaarts. Significant enhancement of micropollutant photocatalytic degradation using a TiO2 nanotube array photoanode based photocatalytic fuel cell. Chemical Engineering Journal 2018, 354 , 553-562.