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Defect Engineering on a Ti4O7 Electrode by Ce3+ Doping for the Efficient Electrooxidation of Perfluorooctanesulfonate

  • Hui Lin*
    Hui Lin
    Research Center for Eco-Environmental Engineering, Dongguan University of Technology, Dongguan523808, P. R. China
    *Email: [email protected]. Phone: +86-769-2286-3169.
    More by Hui Lin
  • Runlin Xiao
    Runlin Xiao
    Research Center for Eco-Environmental Engineering, Dongguan University of Technology, Dongguan523808, P. R. China
    More by Runlin Xiao
  • Ruzhen Xie
    Ruzhen Xie
    College of Architecture and Environment, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, P. R. China
    More by Ruzhen Xie
  • Lihui Yang
    Lihui Yang
    Research Center for Eco-Environmental Engineering, Dongguan University of Technology, Dongguan523808, P. R. China
    More by Lihui Yang
  • Caiming Tang
    Caiming Tang
    Research Center for Eco-Environmental Engineering, Dongguan University of Technology, Dongguan523808, P. R. China
    More by Caiming Tang
  • Rongrong Wang
    Rongrong Wang
    Research Center for Eco-Environmental Engineering, Dongguan University of Technology, Dongguan523808, P. R. China
  • Jie Chen
    Jie Chen
    Research Center for Eco-Environmental Engineering, Dongguan University of Technology, Dongguan523808, P. R. China
    More by Jie Chen
  • Sihao Lv
    Sihao Lv
    Research Center for Eco-Environmental Engineering, Dongguan University of Technology, Dongguan523808, P. R. China
    More by Sihao Lv
  • , and 
  • Qingguo Huang
    Qingguo Huang
    Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of Georgia, Griffin, Georgia 30223, United States
Cite this: Environ. Sci. Technol. 2021, 55, 4, 2597–2607
Publication Date (Web):January 27, 2021
https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.0c06881
Copyright © 2021 American Chemical Society
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Abstract

Defect engineering in an electrocatalyst, such as doping, has the potential to significantly enhance its catalytic activity and stability. Herein, we report the use of a defect engineering strategy to enhance the electrochemical reactivity of Ti4O7 through Ce3+ doping (1–3 at. %), resulting in the significantly accelerated interfacial charge transfer and yielding a 37–129% increase in the anodic production of the hydroxyl radical (OH). The Ce3+-doped Ti4O7 electrodes, [(Ti1–xCex)4O7], also exhibited a more stable electrocatalytic activity than the pristine Ti4O7 electrode so as to facilitate the long-term operation. Furthermore, (Ti1–xCex)4O7 electrodes were also shown to effectively mineralize perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) in electrooxidation processes in both a trace-concentration river water sample and a simulated preconcentration waste stream sample. A 3 at. % dopant amount of Ce3+ resulted in a PFOS oxidation rate 2.4× greater than that of the pristine Ti4O7 electrode. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results suggest that Ce3+ doping created surficial oxygen vacancies that may be responsible for the enhanced electrochemical reactivity and stability of the (Ti1–xCex)4O7 electrodes. Results of this study provide insights into the defect engineering strategy for boosting the electrochemical performance of the Ti4O7 electrode with a robust reactivity and stability.

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  • Natural water sample characterization; schematic and photo of the flow-by cell; and additional SEM, particle size distribution, BET, XPS, Raman, and soprtion (PDF)

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