Photoelectrochemical Degradation of Organic Compounds Coupled with Molecular Hydrogen Generation Using Electrochromic TiO2 Nanotube Arrays

View Author Information
Division of Environmental Science and Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang 37673, Korea
School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742, Korea
*Phone: +82-54-279-2283; e-mail: [email protected]
Cite this: Environ. Sci. Technol. 2017, 51, 11, 6590–6598
Publication Date (Web):April 26, 2017
Copyright © 2017 American Chemical Society
Article Views
Read OnlinePDF (3 MB)
Supporting Info (1)»


Vertically aligned TiO2 nanotube arrays (TNTs) were prepared by electrochemical anodization, and then cathodically polarized with dark blue coloration for the dual-functional photoelectrochemical water treatment of organic substrates degradation and accompanying H2 generation. The resulting Blue-TNTs (inner diameter: ∼40 nm; length: ∼9 μm) showed negligible shift in X-ray diffraction pattern compared with the intact TNTs, but the X-ray photoelectron spectra indicated a partial reduction of Ti4+ to Ti3+ on the surface. The electrochemical analyses of Blue-TNTs revealed a marked enhancement in donor density and electrical conductivity by orders of magnitude. Degradations of test organic substrates on Blue-TNTs were compared with the intact TNTs in electrochemical (EC), photocatalytic (PC), and photoelectrochemical (PEC) conditions (potential bias: 1.64 VNHE; λ > 320 nm). The degradation of 4-chlorophenol was greatly enhanced on Blue-TNTs particularly in PEC condition, whereas the PC activities of the Blue- and intact TNTs were similar. The potential bias of 1.64 VNHE did not induce any noticeable activity in EC condition. Similar trends were observed for the degradation of humic acid and fulvic acid, where main working oxidants were found to be the surface hydroxyl radical as confirmed by hydroxyl radical probe and scavenger tests. H2 generation coupled with the organic degradation was observed only in PEC condition, where the H2 generation rate with Blue-TNTs was more than doubled from that of intact TNTs. Such superior PEC activity was not observed when a common TiO2 nanoparticle film was used as a photoanode. The enhanced electric conductivity of Blue-TNTs coupled with a proper band bending in PEC configuration seemed to induce a highly synergic enhancement.

Supporting Information

Jump To

The Supporting Information is available free of charge on the ACS Publications website at DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.7b00774.

  • SEM image of intact TNTs (Figure S1); XRD patterns of TNTs and Blue-TNTs (Figure S2); HPLC analysis of 4-CP degradation intermediates (Figure S3); Fluorescence emission spectra of FA (Figure S4) and HA (Figure S5); Fluorescence emission spectra of 7-HC (Figure S6) and 2-HTA (Figure S7) generated on TNTs and Blue-TNTs; Effects of electrolytes on the PEC degradation of 4-CP (Figure S8); Effects of TBA and EDTA on PEC degradation of 4-CP (Figure S9); Comparison of PEC and EC degradation of 4-CP with different bias potentials (Figure S10); XPS Ti 2p band of Blue-TNTs before and after PEC experiment (Figure S11) (PDF)

Terms & Conditions

Most electronic Supporting Information files are available without a subscription to ACS Web Editions. Such files may be downloaded by article for research use (if there is a public use license linked to the relevant article, that license may permit other uses). Permission may be obtained from ACS for other uses through requests via the RightsLink permission system:

Cited By

This article is cited by 76 publications.

  1. Min Seok Koo, Seungmok Han, Kangwoo Cho, Wonyong Choi. Quantitative Photoelectrochemical Conversion of Ammonium to Dinitrogen Using a Bromide-Mediated Redox Cycle. ACS ES&T Engineering 2021, 1 (9) , 1287-1297.
  2. Siwen Wang, Shasha Yang, Estefanny Quispe, Hannah Yang, Charles Sanfiorenzo, Shane W. Rogers, Kaihang Wang, Yang Yang, Michael R. Hoffmann. Removal of Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria and Genes by UV-Assisted Electrochemical Oxidation on Degenerative TiO2 Nanotube Arrays. ACS ES&T Engineering 2021, 1 (3) , 612-622.
  3. Lvcun Chen, Peng Chen, Hong Wang, Wen Cui, Jianping Sheng, Jieyuan Li, Yuxin Zhang, Ying Zhou, Fan Dong. Surface Lattice Oxygen Activation on Sr2Sb2O7 Enhances the Photocatalytic Mineralization of Toluene: from Reactant Activation, Intermediate Conversion to Product Desorption. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2021, 13 (4) , 5153-5164.
  4. Yanling Yang, Huajun Chen, Xinxin Zou, Xiao-Lei Shi, Wei-Di Liu, Lei Feng, Guoquan Suo, Xiaojiang Hou, Xiaohui Ye, Li Zhang, Chenghua Sun, Haisheng Li, Changqing Wang, Zhi-Gang Chen. Flexible Carbon-Fiber/Semimetal Bi Nanosheet Arrays as Separable and Recyclable Plasmonic Photocatalysts and Photoelectrocatalysts. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2020, 12 (22) , 24845-24854.
  5. Juanjuan Zhang, Xu Zhao, Yan Wang, Ridha Djellabi. Recovery of Phosphorus from Hypophosphite-Laden Wastewater: A Single-Compartment Photoelectrocatalytic Cell System Integrating Oxidation and Precipitation. Environmental Science & Technology 2020, 54 (2) , 1204-1213.
  6. Sheng Chang, Chun Hu, Ahmad Beyhaqi, Mingqi Wang, Qingyi Zeng. Highly Efficient Hydrogen and Electricity Production Combined with Degradation of Organics Based on a Novel Solar Water-Energy Nexus System. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2020, 12 (2) , 2505-2515.
  7. Jonghun Lim, Hyejin Kim, Jihee Park, Gun-Hee Moon, Junie Jhon M. Vequizo, Akira Yamakata, Jinwoo Lee, Wonyong Choi. How g-C3N4 Works and Is Different from TiO2 as an Environmental Photocatalyst: Mechanistic View. Environmental Science & Technology 2020, 54 (1) , 497-506.
  8. Min Seok Koo, Xiaofang Chen, Kangwoo Cho, Taicheng An, Wonyong Choi. In Situ Photoelectrochemical Chloride Activation Using a WO3 Electrode for Oxidative Treatment with Simultaneous H2 Evolution under Visible Light. Environmental Science & Technology 2019, 53 (16) , 9926-9936.
  9. Chang Liu, Ai-Yong Zhang, Yang Si, Dan-Ni Pei, Han-Qing Yu. Photochemical Protection of Reactive Sites on Defective TiO2–x Surface for Electrochemical Water Treatment. Environmental Science & Technology 2019, 53 (13) , 7641-7652.
  10. Jonghun Lim, Yang Yang, Michael R. Hoffmann. Activation of Peroxymonosulfate by Oxygen Vacancies-Enriched Cobalt-Doped Black TiO2 Nanotubes for the Removal of Organic Pollutants. Environmental Science & Technology 2019, 53 (12) , 6972-6980.
  11. Donglai Pan, Shuning Xiao, Xiaofeng Chen, Ruping Li, Yingnan Cao, Dieqing Zhang, Sisi Pu, Zhangcheng Li, Guisheng Li, Hexing Li. Efficient Photocatalytic Fuel Cell via Simultaneous Visible-Photoelectrocatalytic Degradation and Electricity Generation on a Porous Coral-like WO3/W Photoelectrode. Environmental Science & Technology 2019, 53 (7) , 3697-3706.
  12. Tae Hwa Jeon, Min Seok Koo, Hyejin Kim, Wonyong Choi. Dual-Functional Photocatalytic and Photoelectrocatalytic Systems for Energy- and Resource-Recovering Water Treatment. ACS Catalysis 2018, 8 (12) , 11542-11563.
  13. Mengjiao Xu, Yao Chen, Jiangtao Qin, Yawei Feng, Wei Li, Wei Chen, Jian Zhu, Hexing Li, Zhenfeng Bian. Unveiling the Role of Defects on Oxygen Activation and Photodegradation of Organic Pollutants. Environmental Science & Technology 2018, 52 (23) , 13879-13886.
  14. Shichao Tian, Congzhe Dang, Ran Mao, Xu Zhao. Enhancement of Photoelectrocatalytic Oxidation of Cu–Cyanide Complexes and Cathodic Recovery of Cu in a Metal-Free System. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering 2018, 6 (8) , 10273-10281.
  15. Zhengxin Li, Meng Jia, Baxter Abraham, Jolie C. Blake, Daniel Bodine, John T. Newberg, and Lars Gundlach . Synthesis and Characterization of ZnO/CuO Vertically Aligned Hierarchical Tree-like Nanostructure. Langmuir 2018, 34 (3) , 961-969.
  16. Chang Liu, Ai-Yong Zhang, Yang Si, Dan-Ni Pei, and Han-Qing Yu . Photochemical Anti-Fouling Approach for Electrochemical Pollutant Degradation on Facet-Tailored TiO2 Single Crystals. Environmental Science & Technology 2017, 51 (19) , 11326-11335.
  17. Jun Zhang, Gong Zhang, Huachun Lan, Huijuan Liu, Jiuhui Qu. Sustainable nitrogen fixation over Ru single atoms decorated Cu2O using electrons produced from photoelectrocatalytic organics degradation. Chemical Engineering Journal 2022, 428 , 130373.
  18. Zexiao Zheng, Irene MC Lo. Multifunctional photoelectrochemical systems for coupled water treatment and high-value product generation: current status, mechanisms, remaining challenges, and future opportunities. Current Opinion in Chemical Engineering 2021, 34 , 100711.
  19. Xuedong Du, Mehmet A. Oturan, Minghua Zhou, Nacer Belkessa, Pei Su, Jingju Cai, Clément Trellu, Emmanuel Mousset. Nanostructured electrodes for electrocatalytic advanced oxidation processes: From materials preparation to mechanisms understanding and wastewater treatment applications. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 2021, 296 , 120332.
  20. Zhongran Dai, Junjie Lian, Yusu Sun, Le Li, Hui Zhang, Nan Hu, Dexin Ding. Fabrication of g-C3N4/Sn3O4/Ni electrode for highly efficient photoelectrocatalytic reduction of U(VI). Chemical Engineering Journal 2021, 244 , 133766.
  21. Jun Ma, Long Chen, Yue Liu, Tianyuan Xu, Haodong Ji, Jun Duan, Fengbin Sun, Wen Liu. Oxygen defective titanate nanotubes induced by iron deposition for enhanced peroxymonosulfate activation and acetaminophen degradation: Mechanisms, water chemistry effects, and theoretical calculation. Journal of Hazardous Materials 2021, 418 , 126180.
  22. Zexiao Zheng, Juhua He, Chencheng Dong, Irene M.C. Lo. Photoelectrochemical sewage treatment by sulfite activation over an optimized BiVO4 photoanode to simultaneously promote PPCPs degradation, H2 evolution and E. coli disinfection. Chemical Engineering Journal 2021, 419 , 129418.
  23. G. Divyapriya, Seema Singh, Carlos A. Martínez-Huitle, Jaimy Scaria, Ansaf V. Karim, P.V. Nidheesh. Treatment of real wastewater by photoelectrochemical methods: An overview. Chemosphere 2021, 276 , 130188.
  24. Manel Machreki, Takwa Chouki, Mitja Martelanc, Lorena Butinar, Branka Mozetič Vodopivec, Saim Emin. Preparation of porous α-Fe2O3 thin films for efficient photoelectrocatalytic degradation of basic blue 41 dye. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering 2021, 9 (4) , 105495.
  25. Ravinder Kaushik, Pankaj Kumar Singh, Aditi Halder. Modulation strategies in titania photocatalyst for energy recovery and environmental remediation. Catalysis Today 2021, 10
  26. Ben Jones, Katherine R. Davies, Michael G. Allan, S. Anantharaj, Ian Mabbett, Trystan Watson, James R. Durrant, Moritz F. Kuehnel, Sudhagar Pitchaimuthu. Photoelectrochemical concurrent hydrogen generation and heavy metal recovery from polluted acidic mine water. Sustainable Energy & Fuels 2021, 5 (12) , 3084-3091.
  27. Da Wang, Yinning He, Na Zhong, Zhiqiao He, Yi Shen, Tao Zeng, Xiaohui Lu, Jun Ma, Shuang Song. In situ chloride-mediated synthesis of TiO2 thin film photoanode with enhanced photoelectrochemical activity for carbamazepine oxidation coupled with simultaneous cathodic H2 production and CO2 conversion to fuels. Journal of Hazardous Materials 2021, 410 , 124563.
  28. Aseom Son, Jiho Lee, Changha Lee, Kangwoo Cho, Jaesang Lee, Seok Won Hong. Persulfate enhanced photoelectrochemical oxidation of organic pollutants using self-doped TiO2nanotube arrays: Effect of operating parameters and water matrix. Water Research 2021, 191 , 116803.
  29. Weikang Wang, Shengbo Zhang, Yanyan Liu, Li-Rong Zheng, Guozhong Wang, Yunxia Zhang, Haimin Zhang, Huijun Zhao. Integration of Fe2O3-based photoanode and atomically dispersed cobalt cathode for efficient photoelectrochemical NH3 synthesis. Chinese Chemical Letters 2021, 32 (2) , 805-810.
  30. Guowen Dong, Ruiwen Han, Yajing Pan, Chengkai Zhang, Yu Liu, Honghui Wang, Xiaoliang Ji, Randy A. Dahlgren, Xu Shang, Zheng Chen, Minghua Zhang. Role of MnO2 in controlling iron and arsenic mobilization from illuminated flooded arsenic-enriched soils. Journal of Hazardous Materials 2021, 401 , 123362.
  31. Piangjai Peerakiatkhajohn, Jung-Ho Yun, Teera Butburee, Hongjun Chen, Supphasin Thaweesak, Miaoqiang Lyu, Songcan Wang, Lianzhou Wang. Bifunctional photoelectrochemical process for humic acid degradation and hydrogen production using multi-layered p-type Cu2O photoelectrodes with plasmonic [email protected] Journal of Hazardous Materials 2021, 402 , 123533.
  32. Guowen Dong, Yibin Chen, Zhiying Yan, Jing Zhang, Xiaoliang Ji, Honghui Wang, Randy A. Dahlgren, Fang Chen, Xu Shang, Zheng Chen. Recent advances in the roles of minerals for enhanced microbial extracellular electron transfer. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 2020, 134 , 110404.
  33. Amir Ahmadi, Tingting Wu. Towards full cell potential utilization during water purification using Co/Bi/TiO2 nanotube electrodes. Electrochimica Acta 2020, 364 , 137272.
  34. Yebin Lee, Yiseul Park. Ultrathin multilayer Sb-SnO2/IrTaOx/TiO2 nanotube arrays as anodes for the selective oxidation of chloride ions. Journal of Alloys and Compounds 2020, 840 , 155622.
  35. Huixin Shao, Yanbin Wang, Huabin Zeng, Juanjuan Zhang, Yan Wang, Mika Sillanpää, Xu Zhao. Enhanced photoelectrocatalytic degradation of bisphenol a by BiVO4 photoanode coupling with peroxymonosulfate. Journal of Hazardous Materials 2020, 394 , 121105.
  36. Hou Wang, Jingjing Zhang, Xingzhong Yuan, Longbo Jiang, Qi Xia, Haoyun Chen. Photocatalytic removal of antibiotics from natural water matrices and swine wastewater via Cu(I) coordinately polymeric carbon nitride framework. Chemical Engineering Journal 2020, 392 , 123638.
  37. Jonghun Lim, Michael R. Hoffmann. Peroxymonosulfate (PMS) activation on cobalt-doped TiO 2 nanotubes: degradation of organics under dark and solar light irradiation conditions. Environmental Science: Nano 2020, 7 (5) , 1602-1611.
  38. Jesse S. Dondapati, Aicheng Chen. Quantitative structure–property relationship of the photoelectrochemical oxidation of phenolic pollutants at modified nanoporous titanium oxide using supervised machine learning. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 2020, 22 (16) , 8878-8888.
  39. Elzbieta Kusmierek. Semiconductor Electrode Materials Applied in Photoelectrocatalytic Wastewater Treatment—an Overview. Catalysts 2020, 10 (4) , 439.
  40. Dawei Gao, Lii Wang, Qingyao Wang, Zhenming Qi, Yao Jia, Chunxia Wang. Big-leaf hydrangea-like Bi2S3-BiOBr sensitized TiO2 nanotube arrays with enhanced photoelectrocatalytic performance. Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 2020, 229 , 117936.
  41. Guangqing Xu, Qiang Feng, Zhiwei Wang, Jun Lv, Jun Huang, Yong Li, Pengjie Zhang, Yucheng Wu. Structures and photoelectrochemical performances of reduced TiO2 NTAs obtained by hydrogen thermal and electrochemical reduction methods. Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry 2020, 24 (2) , 365-374.
  42. Xin Xu, Jingju Cai, Minghua Zhou, Xuedong Du, Ying Zhang. Photoelectrochemical degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid using electrochemically self-doped Blue TiO2 nanotube arrays with formic acid as electrolyte. Journal of Hazardous Materials 2020, 382 , 121096.
  43. Rayees Ahmad Rather, Irene M.C. Lo. Photoelectrochemical sewage treatment by a multifunctional g-C3N4/Ag/AgCl/BiVO4 photoanode for the simultaneous degradation of emerging pollutants and hydrogen production, and the disinfection of E. coli. Water Research 2020, 168 , 115166.
  44. Yiseul Park, Chuhyung Kim, Minsun Kim, Soonhyun Kim, Wonyong Choi. Ambient-temperature catalytic degradation of aromatic compounds on iron oxide nanorods supported on carbon nanofiber sheet. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 2019, 259 , 118066.
  45. Wei-Kang Wang, Wenze Zhu, Liang Mao, Junying Zhang, Zhaoyu Zhou, Guohua Zhao. Two-dimensional TiO2-g-C3N4 with both Ti N and C O bridges with excellent conductivity for synergistic photoelectrocatalytic degradation of bisphenol A. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 2019, 557 , 227-235.
  46. Sung Pil Hong, Seonghwan Kim, Nayeong Kim, Jeyong Yoon, Choonsoo Kim. A short review on electrochemically self-doped TiO2 nanotube arrays: Synthesis and applications. Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering 2019, 36 (11) , 1753-1766.
  47. Jingju Cai, Minghua Zhou, Yuwei Pan, Xuedong Du, Xiaoye Lu. Extremely efficient electrochemical degradation of organic pollutants with co-generation of hydroxyl and sulfate radicals on Blue-TiO2 nanotubes anode. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 2019, 257 , 117902.
  48. Kangwoo Cho, Seonggeun Lee, Hyeonjeong Kim, Hyung-Eun Kim, Aseom Son, Eun-ju Kim, Mengkai Li, Zhimin Qiang, Seok Won Hong. Effects of reactive oxidants generation and capacitance on photoelectrochemical water disinfection with self-doped titanium dioxide nanotube arrays. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 2019, 257 , 117910.
  49. Tianhui Zhao, Mengyuan Fang, Zhi Tang, Xiaoli Zhao, Fengchang Wu, John P. Giesy. Adsorption, aggregation and sedimentation of titanium dioxide nanoparticles and nanotubes in the presence of different sources of humic acids. Science of The Total Environment 2019, 692 , 660-668.
  50. Jonghun Lim, Michael R. Hoffmann. Substrate oxidation enhances the electrochemical production of hydrogen peroxide. Chemical Engineering Journal 2019, 374 , 958-964.
  51. Zheng Chen, Guowen Dong, Yibin Chen, Honghui Wang, Shurui Liu, Zhijie Chen, Chenghu Yang, Xu Shang, Randy Dahlgren. Impacts of enhanced microbial-photoreductive and suppressed dark microbial reductive dissolution on the mobility of As and Fe in flooded tailing soils with zinc sulfide. Chemical Engineering Journal 2019, 372 , 118-128.
  52. Lulu Long, Changwei Bai, Shirong Zhang, Shihuai Deng, Dong Tian, Fei Shen, Yanzong Zhang, Jun Wu, Jisong He, Gang Yang. Boosted charge transfer from single crystalline titanium nanotubes for a dual-purpose PEC system. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 2019, 44 (33) , 17622-17629.
  53. Huijie Shi, Yingling Wang, Chunjing Tang, Weikang Wang, Meichuan Liu, Guohua Zhao. Mechanisim investigation on the enhanced and selective photoelectrochemical oxidation of atrazine on molecular imprinted mesoporous TiO2. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 2019, 246 , 50-60.
  54. TsingHai Wang, Chih-Ang Lin, Su Xu, Chu-Fang Wang, Chiu-Wen Chen, Cheng-Di Dong, C.P. Huang. Toward concurrent organics removal and potential hydrogen production in wastewater treatment: Photoelectrochemical decolorization of methylene blue over hematite electrode in the presence of Mn(II). Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 2019, 244 , 140-149.
  55. Jong Uk Choi, Yeong Gyeong Kim, Wan-Kuen Jo. Multiple photocatalytic applications of non-precious Cu-loaded g-C3N4/hydrogenated black TiO2 nanofiber heterostructure. Applied Surface Science 2019, 473 , 761-769.
  56. Yuan Yao, Mingxuan Sun, Zihan Zhang, Xiaojing Lin, Bowen Gao, Sambandam Anandan, Wei Liu. In situ synthesis of MoO3/Ag/TiO2 nanotube arrays for enhancement of visible-light photoelectrochemical performance. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 2019, 44 (18) , 9348-9358.
  57. Xizi Long, Hui Wang, Chuqiao Wang, Xian Cao, Xianning Li. Enhancement of azo dye degradation and power generation in a photoelectrocatalytic microbial fuel cell by simple cathodic reduction on titania nanotube arrays electrode. Journal of Power Sources 2019, 415 , 145-153.
  58. Patrycja Parnicka, Paweł Mazierski, Wojciech Lisowski, Tomasz Klimczuk, Joanna Nadolna, Adriana Zaleska-Medynska. A new simple approach to prepare rare-earth metals-modified TiO2 nanotube arrays photoactive under visible light: Surface properties and mechanism investigation. Results in Physics 2019, 12 , 412-423.
  59. Ai-Yong Zhang, Nai-Hui Huang, Yuan-Yi He, Pin-Cheng Zhao, Jing-Wei Feng. Sulfate radicals generation and refractory pollutants removal on defective facet-tailored TiO2 with reduced matrix effects. Chemical Engineering Journal 2019, 358 , 243-252.
  60. Longyu Qiu, Qingyao Wang, Zhiyuan Liu, Qianqian Zhao, Xiaoyu Tian, Huili Li, Shanmin Gao. Preparation of 3D TiO2 nanotube arrays photoelectrode on Ti mesh for photoelectric conversion and photoelectrocatalytic removal of pollutant. Separation and Purification Technology 2018, 207 , 206-212.
  61. Liang Hao, Jiancheng Yan, Lijun Cheng, Qian Zhao, Sujun Guan, Zheng Zhu, Yun Lu. Solar-responsive sole TiO2 nanotube arrays with high photocatalytic activity prepared by one-step anodic oxidation. Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry 2018, 22 (10) , 3183-3190.
  62. Yeon-Ji Jin, Wan-Kuen Jo. Upgraded organic vapor treatment and hydrogen generation using low-cost metal/1D black titania nanocomposites under simulated solar irradiation. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry 2018, 66 , 318-324.
  63. Negin Pishkar, Zahra Jedi-soltanabadi, Mahmood Ghoranneviss. Reduction in the band gap of anodic TiO2 nanotube arrays by H2 plasma treatment. Results in Physics 2018, 10 , 466-468.
  64. Junghyun Choi, Taeseup Song, Jiseok Kwon, Sangkyu Lee, Hyungkyu Han, Nitish Roy, Chiaki Terashima, Akira Fujishima, Ungyu Paik, Sudhagar Pitchaimuthu. WO3 nanofibrous backbone scaffolds for enhanced optical absorbance and charge transport in metal oxide (Fe2O3, BiVO4) semiconductor photoanodes towards solar fuel generation. Applied Surface Science 2018, 447 , 331-337.
  65. Zhiyuan Liu, Qingyao Wang, Wenqian Rong, Rencheng Jin, Yuming Cui, Shanmin Gao. CTAB assisted hydrothermal preparation of Bi 2 WO 6 WO 3 nanosheets on TiO 2 nanotube arrays for photoelectrocatalytic applications. Separation and Purification Technology 2018, 200 , 191-197.
  66. Huifei Li, Mei Ding, Jian Jin, Deen Sun, Sam Zhang, Chuankun Jia, Lidong Sun. Effect of Electrolyte Pretreatment on the Formation of TiO 2 Nanotubes: An Ignored yet Non-negligible Factor. ChemElectroChem 2018, 5 (7) , 1006-1012.
  67. Qi Wang, Enqin Liu, Chenlu Zhang, Siwei Huang, Yanqing Cong, Yi Zhang. Synthesis of Cs3PMo12O40/Bi2O3 composite with highly enhanced photocatalytic activity under visible-light irradiation. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 2018, 516 , 304-311.
  68. Wan-Kuen Jo, Hee-Jin Yoo. Combination of ultrasound-treated 2D g-C3N4 with Ag/black TiO2 nanostructure for improved photocatalysis. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry 2018, 42 , 517-525.
  69. Yeong Gyeong Kim, Wan-Kuen Jo. Coupling copper and hydrogenated TiO 2 to bare TiO 2 structures for improved photocatalytic performance. Journal of the American Ceramic Society 2018, 101 (4) , 1479-1487.
  70. Sudheera Yaparatne, Carl P. Tripp, Aria Amirbahman. Photodegradation of taste and odor compounds in water in the presence of immobilized TiO2-SiO2 photocatalysts. Journal of Hazardous Materials 2018, 346 , 208-217.
  71. Yang Xu, Wei Wen, Jin-Ming Wu. Titania nanowires functionalized polyester fabrics with enhanced photocatalytic and antibacterial performances. Journal of Hazardous Materials 2018, 343 , 285-297.
  72. Zhiqiang Li, Yongchun Dong, Bing Li, Peng Wang, Zhenlei Chen, Liran Bian. Creation of self-cleaning polyester fabric with TiO2 nanoparticles via a simple exhaustion process: Conditions optimization and stain decomposition pathway. Materials & Design 2018, 140 , 366-375.
  73. Fekadu Checkol, Anders Elfwing, Grzegorz Greczynski, Solomon Mehretie, Olle Inganäs, Shimelis Admassie. Highly Stable and Efficient Lignin-PEDOT/PSS Composites for Removal of Toxic Metals. Advanced Sustainable Systems 2018, 2 (1) , 1700114.
  74. Lacey M. Reid, Tengfei Li, Yang Cao, Curtis P. Berlinguette. Organic chemistry at anodes and photoanodes. Sustainable Energy & Fuels 2018, 2 (9) , 1905-1927.
  75. Shuang Yan, Tengyu Liu, Yue Zhang, Dandan Sun, Xiangbo Li, Guangwen Xie, Chang Feng, Likun Xu. Enhanced photoelectrochemical performance of hydrogen-treated SrTiO3/TiO2 nanotube arrays heterojunction composite. Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry 2017, 807 , 213-219.
  76. Shanshan Liu, Xu Zhao, Yanbin Wang, Huixin Shao, Meng Qiao, Yan Wang, Shen Zhao. Peroxymonosulfate enhanced photoelectrocatalytic degradation of phenol activated by Co 3 O 4 loaded carbon fiber cathode. Journal of Catalysis 2017, 355 , 167-175.