Oxidation Kinetics of Bromophenols by Nonradical Activation of Peroxydisulfate in the Presence of Carbon Nanotube and Formation of Brominated Polymeric Products

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State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150090, China
College of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Harbin University of Science and Technology, Harbin 150040, China
*(S.P.) Phone: +86 451 86392714; fax: +86 451 86392714 (; e-mail: [email protected]
*(J.J.) Phone: +86 451 86283010; fax: +86 451 86283010; e-mail: [email protected], [email protected]
Cite this: Environ. Sci. Technol. 2017, 51, 18, 10718–10728
Publication Date (Web):August 14, 2017
https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.7b02271
Copyright © 2017 American Chemical Society
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Abstract

This work demonstrated that bromophenols (BrPs) could be readily oxidized by peroxydisulfate (PDS) activated by a commercial carbon nanotube (CNT), while furfuryl alcohol (a chemical probe for singlet oxygen (1O2)) was quite refractory. Results obtained by radical quenching experiments, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy further confirmed the involvement of nonradical PDS-CNT complexes rather than 1O2. Bicarbonate and chloride ion exhibited negligible impacts on BrPs degradation by the PDS/CNT system, while a significant inhibitory effect was observed for natural organic matter. The oxidation of BrPs was influenced by solution pH with maximum rates occurring at neutral pH. Linear free energy relationships (LFERs) were established between the observed pseudo-first-order oxidation rates of various substituted phenols and the classical descriptor variables (i.e., Hammett constant σ+, and half-wave oxidation potential E1/2). Products analyses by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry clearly showed the formation of hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers and hydroxylated polybrominated biphenyls on CNT surface. Their formation pathway possibly involved the generation of bromophenoxyl radicals from BrPs one-electron oxidation and their subsequent coupling reactions. These results suggest that the novel nonradical PDS/CNT oxidation technology is a good alternative for selectively eliminating BrPs with alleviating toxic byproducts in treated water effluent.

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