Oxidation of Microcystin-LR via Activation of Peroxymonosulfate Using Ascorbic Acid: Kinetic Modeling and Toxicity Assessment

  • Shiqing Zhou
    Shiqing Zhou
    Department of Water Engineering and Science, College of Civil Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, Hunan 410082, China
    Brook Byer Institute for Sustainable Systems and School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332, United States
    More by Shiqing Zhou
  • Yanghai Yu
    Yanghai Yu
    Department of Water Engineering and Science, College of Civil Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, Hunan 410082, China
    More by Yanghai Yu
  • Weiqiu Zhang
    Weiqiu Zhang
    Brook Byer Institute for Sustainable Systems and School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332, United States
    More by Weiqiu Zhang
  • Xiaoyang Meng
    Xiaoyang Meng
    Brook Byer Institute for Sustainable Systems and School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332, United States
  • Jinming Luo
    Jinming Luo
    Brook Byer Institute for Sustainable Systems and School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332, United States
    More by Jinming Luo
  • Lin Deng
    Lin Deng
    Department of Water Engineering and Science, College of Civil Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, Hunan 410082, China
    Brook Byer Institute for Sustainable Systems and School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332, United States
    More by Lin Deng
  • Zhou Shi
    Zhou Shi
    Department of Water Engineering and Science, College of Civil Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, Hunan 410082, China
    More by Zhou Shi
  • , and 
  • John Crittenden*
    John Crittenden
    Brook Byer Institute for Sustainable Systems and School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332, United States
    *Phone: 404-894-5676; fax: 404-894-7896; e-mail: [email protected]
Cite this: Environ. Sci. Technol. 2018, 52, 7, 4305–4312
Publication Date (Web):March 7, 2018
Copyright © 2018 American Chemical Society
Article Views
Read OnlinePDF (1 MB)
Supporting Info (1)»


Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have been widely used for the destruction of organic contaminants in the aqueous phase. In this study, we introduce an AOP on activated peroxymonosulfate (PMS) by using ascorbic acid (H2A) to generate sulfate radicals (SO4•–). Sulfate radicals, hydroxyl radicals (HO), and ascorbyl radicals (A•–) were found using electron spin resonance (ESR). But we found A•– is negligible in the degradation of microcystin-LR (MCLR) due to its low reactivity. We developed a first-principles kinetic model to simulate the MCLR degradation and predict the radical concentrations. The MCLR degradation rate decreased with increasing pH. The scavenging effect of natural organic matter (NOM) on SO4•– was relatively small compared to that for HO. Considering both energy consumption and MCLR removal, the optimal H2A and PMS doses for H2A/PMS process were determined at 1.0 × 10–6 M and 1.6 × 10–5 M, respectively. In addition, we determined the toxicity using the protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) test and the results showed that MCLR was readily detoxified and its oxidation byproducts were not hepatotoxic. Overall, our work provides a new type of AOP and a promising, efficient, and environmental-friendly method for removing microcystins in algae-laden water.

Supporting Information

Jump To

The Supporting Information is available free of charge on the ACS Publications website at DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.7b06560.

  • Supplemental text describing chemicals, ESR procedures for detection of sulfate, hydroxyl and ascorbyl radicals, toxicity assessment of MCLR, modeling approach and rate constants determination, kinetic equations, and energy costs. Tables showing objective function values for kinetic model, and oxidation products of MCLR. Figures showing calibration curve for toxicity assessments, and proposed activated mechanism of PMS by ascorbic acid; model-predicted peroxymonosulfate radical concentrations; intensity profiles of hydroxyl radical, sulfate radical and ascorbyl radical; fractions of H2A, HA and A2– species under different pH values; model-predicted sulfate radical and hydroxyl radical distributions under different NOM concentrations; EE/Ototal (in kWh L–1) of H2A/PMS process vary with H2A and PMS doses; proposed pathways of MC-LR degradation in the H2/PMS process (PDF)

Terms & Conditions

Most electronic Supporting Information files are available without a subscription to ACS Web Editions. Such files may be downloaded by article for research use (if there is a public use license linked to the relevant article, that license may permit other uses). Permission may be obtained from ACS for other uses through requests via the RightsLink permission system: http://pubs.acs.org/page/copyright/permissions.html.

Cited By

This article is cited by 69 publications.

  1. Weiqiu Zhang, Shiqing Zhou, Yangtao Wu, Shumin Zhu, John Crittenden. Computerized Pathway Generator for the UV/Free Chlorine Process: Prediction of Byproducts and Reactions. Environmental Science & Technology 2021, 55 (4) , 2608-2617. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.0c07080
  2. Shiqing Zhou, Weiqiu Zhang, Julong Sun, Shumin Zhu, Ke Li, Xiaoyang Meng, Jinming Luo, Zhou Shi, Dandan Zhou, John C. Crittenden. Oxidation Mechanisms of the UV/Free Chlorine Process: Kinetic Modeling and Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships. Environmental Science & Technology 2019, 53 (8) , 4335-4345. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.8b06896
  3. Weiqiu Zhang, Shiqing Zhou, Julong Sun, Xiaoyang Meng, Jinming Luo, Dandan Zhou, John Crittenden. Impact of Chloride Ions on UV/H2O2 and UV/Persulfate Advanced Oxidation Processes. Environmental Science & Technology 2018, 52 (13) , 7380-7389. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.8b01662
  4. Hee-Jun Kim, Chan-Hee Won, Yeong-Pyo Hong, In Ho Lee, Hyun-Woo Kim. Energy-effective elimination of harmful microcystins by a non-thermal plasma process. Chemosphere 2021, 284 , 131338. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.131338
  5. Julong Sun, Shiqing Zhou, Da Sheng, Nan Li, Jue Wang, Changbo Jiang. Elimination of β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) during UV/chlorine process: Influence factors, transformation pathway and DBP formation. Chemosphere 2021, 284 , 131426. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.131426
  6. Yibing Sun, Ruiping Li, Chunli Song, Hao Zhang, Yingchun Cheng, Anmin Nie, Hongchao Li, Dionysios D. Dionysiou, Jieshu Qian, Bingcai Pan. Origin of the improved reactivity of MoS2 single crystal by confining lattice Fe atom in peroxymonosulfate-based Fenton-like reaction. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 2021, 298 , 120537. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcatb.2021.120537
  7. Xin Liu, Peng Xu, Qi Fu, Runhan Li, Chenxi He, Wenxuan Yao, Lei Wang, Shiqi Xie, Zhiyi Xie, Qiulai He, John C. Crittenden. Ferric ion promoted degradation of acetaminophen with zero − valent copper activated peroxymonosulfate process. Chemical Engineering Journal 2021, 426 , 131679. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2021.131679
  8. Xin Liu, Peng Xu, Qi Fu, Runhan Li, Chenxi He, Wenxuan Yao, Lei Wang, Shiqi Xie, Zhiyi Xie, Jingwei Ma, Qiulai He, John C. Crittenden. Strong degradation of orange II by activation of peroxymonosulfate using combination of ferrous ion and zero-valent copper. Separation and Purification Technology 2021, 278 , 119509. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seppur.2021.119509
  9. Qilong Wang, Guoliang Chen, Qian Zhang, Mingxing Wang, Guixue Wang, Tingzhang Hu. Microcystin-leucine arginine blocks vasculogenesis and angiogenesis through impairing cytoskeleton and impeding endothelial cell migration by downregulating integrin-mediated Rho/ROCK signaling pathway. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 2021, 28 (47) , 67108-67119. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-15337-9
  10. Yu Li, Yong Feng, Bin Yang, Zequn Yang, Kaimin Shih. Activation of dissolved molecular oxygen by ascorbic acid-mediated circulation of copper(II): Applications and limitations. Separation and Purification Technology 2021, 275 , 119186. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seppur.2021.119186
  11. Yangtao Wu, Ting Cai, Xiaojun Chen, Xiaodi Duan, Guangmei Xu, Lingjun Bu, Shiqing Zhou, Zhou Shi. Unveiling the interaction of epigallocatechin-3-gallate with peroxymonosulfate for degradation of bisphenol S: Two-stage kinetics and identification of reactive species. Separation and Purification Technology 2021, 274 , 119040. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seppur.2021.119040
  12. Xin Liu, Qi Fu, Peng Xu, Pengfei Zhu, Zhuoyu Yang, John C. Crittenden. Rapid determination of monopersulfate with bromide ion-catalyzed oxidation of 2, 2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS). Chemical Engineering Journal 2021, 426 , 133551. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2021.133551
  13. Xiaomin Chen, Hui Wang, Xiaojun Huang, Shengkun Xia, Chunhua Chen, Qixing Nie, Shaoping Nie. Efficient enrichment of total flavonoids from kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala L.) extracts by NKA-9 resin and antioxidant activities of flavonoids extract in vitro. Food Chemistry 2021, 44 , 131508. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.131508
  14. Ying Huang, Qiongji Jiang, Xubiao Yu, Huihui Gan, Xia Zhu, Siyi Fan, Yan Su, Zhirui Xu, Cunrui He. A combined radical and non-radical oxidation processes for efficient degradation of Acid Orange 7 in the homogeneous Cu(II)/PMS system: important role of chloride. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 2021, 28 (37) , 51251-51264. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-14262-1
  15. Tao Luo, Jing Xu, Jinjun Li, Feng Wu, Danna Zhou. Strengthening arsenite oxidation in water using metal-free ultrasonic activation of sulfite. Chemosphere 2021, 281 , 130860. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.130860
  16. Kejia Zhang, Jing Deng, Yijing Chen, Chengcheng Xu, Cheng Ye, Xiao Ling, Xueyan Li. Ascorbic acid enhanced ciprofloxacin degradation with nanoscale zero-valent copper activated molecular oxygen. Chemosphere 2021, 278 , 130354. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.130354
  17. Xiaori Fu, Xinyan Wei, Wei Zhang, Wupeng Yan, Peng Wei, Shuguang Lyu. Enhanced effects of reducing agent on oxalate chelated Fe(II) catalyzed percarbonate system for benzene degradation. Water Supply 2021, 50 https://doi.org/10.2166/ws.2021.278
  18. Hanxuan Zeng, Lin Deng, Lingfang Yang, Huiying Wu, Haojie Zhang, Chan Zhou, Bin Liu, Zhou Shi. Novel Prussian blue [email protected] nanocomposite as heterogeneous activator of peroxymonosulfate for the degradation of coumarin: The nonnegligible role of Lewis-acid sites on MXene. Chemical Engineering Journal 2021, 416 , 128071. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2020.128071
  19. Tieyue Qi, Lei Xing, Zhimo Fang, Lin Zhang, Huining Xiao, Lidong Wang. Enhanced oxidation of sulfite over a highly efficient biochar-induced silica composite for sulfur resource utilization in magnesia desulfurization. Journal of Materials Chemistry A 2021, 9 (22) , 13288-13296. https://doi.org/10.1039/D0TA10354C
  20. Haoran Song, Rong Du, Yuwei Wang, Daoyuan Zu, Rui Zhou, Yang Cai, Fangxian Wang, Zhuo Li, Yongming Shen, Changping Li. Anchoring single atom cobalt on two-dimensional MXene for activation of peroxymonosulfate. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 2021, 286 , 119898. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcatb.2021.119898
  21. Hongyu Zhou, Heng Zhang, Yongli He, Bingkun Huang, Chenying Zhou, Gang Yao, Bo Lai. Critical review of reductant-enhanced peroxide activation processes: Trade-off between accelerated Fe3+/Fe2+ cycle and quenching reactions. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 2021, 286 , 119900. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcatb.2021.119900
  22. Pin Wang, Lingjun Bu, Yangtao Wu, Jing Deng, Shiqing Zhou. Mechanistic insights into paracetamol transformation in UV/NH2Cl process: Experimental and theoretical study. Water Research 2021, 194 , 116938. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2021.116938
  23. Gang Wang, Peng Wang, Huiling Liu, Jing Wang, Xiaohu Dai, Yanjun Xin. Degradation of spiramycin by thermally activated peroxydisulfate: Kinetics study, oxidation products and acute toxicity. Chemical Engineering Journal 2021, 408 , 127255. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2020.127255
  24. Tiantian Chen, Zhenyang Yu, Ting Xu, Rong Xiao, Wenhai Chu, Daqiang Yin. Formation and degradation mechanisms of CX3R-type oxidation by-products during cobalt catalyzed peroxymonosulfate oxidation: The roles of Co3+ and SO4·-. Journal of Hazardous Materials 2021, 405 , 124243. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.124243
  25. Hongchao Li, Jieshu Qian, Bingcai Pan. N-coordinated Co containing porous carbon as catalyst with improved dispersity and stability to activate peroxymonosulfate for degradation of organic pollutants. Chemical Engineering Journal 2021, 403 , 126395. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2020.126395
  26. Yangtao Wu, Shumin Zhu, Jue Wang, Lingjun Bu, Jing Deng, Shiqing Zhou. Role of reactive nitrogen species in ranitidine degradation in UV/chloramine process: Transformation pathways and NDMA formation. Chemical Engineering Journal 2021, 404 , 126557. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2020.126557
  27. Rui Cheng, Hui Zhu, Brian Shutes, Baixing Yan. Treatment of microcystin (MC-LR) and nutrients in eutrophic water by constructed wetlands: Performance and microbial community. Chemosphere 2021, 263 , 128139. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.128139
  28. Jiebin Duan, Su-yan Pang, Zhen Wang, Yang Zhou, Yuan Gao, Juan Li, Qin Guo, Jin Jiang. Hydroxylamine driven advanced oxidation processes for water treatment: A review. Chemosphere 2021, 262 , 128390. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.128390
  29. Tao Luo, Hao Wang, Long Chen, Jinjun Li, Feng Wu, Danna Zhou. Visible light-driven oxidation of arsenite, sulfite and thiazine dyes: A new strategy for using waste to treat waste. Journal of Cleaner Production 2021, 280 , 124374. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.124374
  30. Dan-Ni Pei, Chang Liu, Ai-Yong Zhang, Xiao-Qiang Pan, Han-Qing Yu. In situ organic Fenton-like catalysis triggered by anodic polymeric intermediates for electrochemical water purification. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2020, 117 (49) , 30966-30972. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2005035117
  31. Hejun Ren, Chenguang Li, Zhonghui Han, Tingting Li, Xiong Jin, Rui Zhou. Magnetic mesoporous FeCo 2 O 4 – Fe 3 O 4 microrods as novel peroxymonosulfate activators for effective metronidazole degradation. Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology 2020, 95 (12) , 3202-3212. https://doi.org/10.1002/jctb.6498
  32. Jialin Jia, Dongmei Liu, Songxue Wang, Huarui Li, Jiaxin Ni, Xiaobo Li, Jiayu Tian, Qiao Wang. Visible-light-induced activation of peroxymonosulfate by TiO2 nano-tubes arrays for enhanced degradation of bisphenol A. Separation and Purification Technology 2020, 253 , 117510. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seppur.2020.117510
  33. Chaoqun Tan, Tianhui Xu, Huan He, Qinglong Xu, Chao Fang, Erdeng Du, Jing Deng, Wenhai Chu. Bimetallic oxychloride as an efficient oxone activator: Radical and non-radical oxidation of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Chemical Engineering Journal 2020, 400 , 125921. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2020.125921
  34. Shengnan Chen, Jing Deng, Cheng Ye, Chengcheng Xu, Lingyi Huai, Jun Li, Xueyan Li. Simultaneous removal of para-arsanilic acid and the released inorganic arsenic species by CuFe2O4 activated peroxymonosulfate process. Science of The Total Environment 2020, 742 , 140587. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.140587
  35. Yu Wang, Yang Wu, Yafei Yu, Tao Pan, Dantong Li, Dimitra Lambropoulou, Xin Yang. Natural polyphenols enhanced the Cu(II)/peroxymonosulfate (PMS) oxidation: The contribution of Cu(III) and HO•. Water Research 2020, 186 , 116326. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2020.116326
  36. Yangtao Wu, Lingjun Bu, Xiaodi Duan, Shumin Zhu, Minghao Kong, Ningyuan Zhu, Shiqing Zhou. Mini review on the roles of nitrate/nitrite in advanced oxidation processes: Radicals transformation and products formation. Journal of Cleaner Production 2020, 273 , 123065. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.123065
  37. Hongwei Luo, Ying Cheng, Yifeng Zeng, Kai Luo, Dongqin He, Xiangliang Pan. Rapid removal of organic micropollutants by heterogeneous peroxymonosulfate catalysis over a wide pH range: Performance, mechanism and economic analysis. Separation and Purification Technology 2020, 248 , 117023. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seppur.2020.117023
  38. Peng Zhou, Feng Cheng, Gang Nie, Yangyang Yang, Kunsheng Hu, Xiaoguang Duan, Yongli Zhang, Shaobin Wang. Boron carbide boosted Fenton-like oxidation: A novel Fe(III)/Fe(II) circulation. Green Energy & Environment 2020, 5 (4) , 414-422. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gee.2020.09.007
  39. Runlong Hao, Yichen Luo, Zhen Qian, Zhao Ma, Yuqiao Ding, Yaping Gong, Zheng Wang, Yi Zhao. Simultaneous removal of SO2, NO and Hg0 using an enhanced gas phase UV-AOP method. Science of The Total Environment 2020, 734 , 139266. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.139266
  40. Zhou Shi, Zhexiong Li, Jiong Gao, Yangtao Wu, Shiqing Zhou, Lingjun Bu. Enhanced oxidation of bisphenol A by permanganate in the presence of epigallocatechin gallate: Kinetics and mechanism. Separation and Purification Technology 2020, 247 , 117025. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seppur.2020.117025
  41. Hongxiang Zhang, Chenwei Li, Lai Lyu, Chun Hu. Surface oxygen vacancy inducing peroxymonosulfate activation through electron donation of pollutants over cobalt-zinc ferrite for water purification. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 2020, 270 , 118874. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcatb.2020.118874
  42. Runlong Hao, Chu Li, Zheng Wang, Yaping Gong, Bo Yuan, Yi Zhao, Lidong Wang, John Crittenden. Removal of gaseous elemental mercury using thermally catalytic chlorite-persulfate complex. Chemical Engineering Journal 2020, 391 , 123508. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2019.123508
  43. Changqing Zhu, Yikun Zhang, Zhongwei Fan, Fuqiang Liu, Aimin Li. Carbonate-enhanced catalytic activity and stability of Co3O4 nanowires for 1O2-driven bisphenol A degradation via peroxymonosulfate activation: Critical roles of electron and proton acceptors. Journal of Hazardous Materials 2020, 393 , 122395. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.122395
  44. Wei Li, Yongli Zhang, Pingju Zhao, Peng Zhou, Yang Liu, Xin Cheng, Jingquan Wang, Bo Yang, Hongguang Guo. Enhanced kinetic performance of peroxymonosulfate/ZVI system with the addition of copper ions: Reactivity, mechanism, and degradation pathways. Journal of Hazardous Materials 2020, 393 , 122399. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.122399
  45. Hongwei Sun, Guihong Xie, Di He, Lizhi Zhang. Ascorbic acid promoted magnetite Fenton degradation of alachlor: Mechanistic insights and kinetic modeling. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 2020, 267 , 118383. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcatb.2019.118383
  46. Runlong Hao, Zhao Ma, Zhen Qian, Yaping Gong, Zheng Wang, Yichen Luo, Bo Yuan, Yi Zhao. New insight into the behavior and cost-effectiveness of different radicals in the removal of NO and Hg0. Chemical Engineering Journal 2020, 385 , 123885. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2019.123885
  47. Mengyuan Xu, Jing Deng, Anhong Cai, Xiaoyan Ma, Jun Li, Qingsong Li, Xueyan Li. Comparison of UVC and UVC/persulfate processes for tetracycline removal in water. Chemical Engineering Journal 2020, 384 , 123320. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2019.123320
  48. Xiaofang Luo, Shumin Zhu, Jue Wang, Julong Sun, Lingjun Bu, Shiqing Zhou. Formation, speciation and toxicity of CX3R-type disinfection by-products (DBPs) from chlor(am)ination of 2,4-diaminobutyric acid (DAB). Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 2020, 191 , 110247. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2020.110247
  49. Runlong Hao, Xingzhou Mao, Zhao Ma, Zhen Qian, Yichen Luo, Xu Zhao, Bo Yuan. Multi-air-pollutant removal by using an integrated system: Key parameters assessment and reaction mechanism. Science of The Total Environment 2020, 710 , 136434. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.136434
  50. Dong-Qin He, Ying-Jie Zhang, Dan-Ni Pei, Gui-Xiang Huang, Chang Liu, Jun Li, Han-Qing Yu. Degradation of benzoic acid in an advanced oxidation process: The effects of reducing agents. Journal of Hazardous Materials 2020, 382 , 121090. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2019.121090
  51. Zhuo-Yu Li, Lu Wang, Yu-Lei Liu, Qi Zhao, Jun Ma. Unraveling the interaction of hydroxylamine and Fe(III) in Fe(II)/Persulfate system: A kinetic and simulating study. Water Research 2020, 168 , 115093. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2019.115093
  52. Yangtao Wu, Shumin Zhu, Weiqiu Zhang, Lingjun Bu, Shiqing Zhou. Comparison of diatrizoate degradation by UV/chlorine and UV/chloramine processes: Kinetic mechanisms and iodinated disinfection byproducts formation. Chemical Engineering Journal 2019, 375 , 121972. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2019.121972
  53. Jian Yu, Dandan Zhang, Wenhui Ren, Bin Liu. Transport of Enterococcus faecalis in granular activated carbon column: Potential energy, migration, and release. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces 2019, 183 , 110415. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfb.2019.110415
  54. Julong Sun, Lingjun Bu, Shiyang Chen, Xianlei Lu, Yangtao Wu, Zhou Shi, Shiqing Zhou. Oxidation of Microcystic-LR via the solar/chlorine process: Radical mechanism, pathways and toxicity assessment. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 2019, 183 , 109509. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2019.109509
  55. Rui Zhou, Tingting Li, Yu Su, Chenguang Li, Xiong Jin, Hejun Ren. Removal of sulfanilic acid from wastewater by thermally activated persulfate process: oxidation performance and kinetic modeling. Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology 2019, 94 (10) , 3208-3216. https://doi.org/10.1002/jctb.6128
  56. Songying Qu, Chaolin Li, Xue Sun, Jingwen Wang, Haijian Luo, Shuai Wang, Jiayu Ta, Dongyang Li. Enhancement of peroxymonosulfate activation and utilization efficiency via iron oxychloride nanosheets in visible light. Separation and Purification Technology 2019, 224 , 132-141. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seppur.2019.04.084
  57. Hongchao Li, Chao Shan, Bingcai Pan. Development of Fe-doped g-C3N4/graphite mediated peroxymonosulfate activation for degradation of aromatic pollutants via nonradical pathway. Science of The Total Environment 2019, 675 , 62-72. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.04.171
  58. Xu-Dong Lv, Yu-Hong Cui, Wei-Jun Xue, Sui-Qin Yang, Jia-Ying Li, Zheng-Qian Liu. Comparison of inert and non-inert cathode in cathode/Fe3+/Peroxymonosulfate processes on iohexol degradation. Chemosphere 2019, 223 , 494-503. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.02.079
  59. Hongwei Luo, Yaoyao Zhao, Dongqin He, Qing Ji, Ying Cheng, Daoyong Zhang, Xiangliang Pan. Hydroxylamine-facilitated degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) and p-nitrophenol (PNP) as catalyzed by [email protected] core-shell nanowires. Journal of Molecular Liquids 2019, 282 , 13-22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molliq.2019.02.136
  60. Runlong Hao, Xingzhou Mao, Zheng Wang, Yi Zhao, Tianhao Wang, Zhonghao Sun, Bo Yuan, Yankun Li. A novel method of ultraviolet/NaClO2-NH4OH for NO removal: Mechanism and kinetics. Journal of Hazardous Materials 2019, 368 , 234-242. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2019.01.042
  61. Shumin Zhu, Bingzhi Dong, Yangtao Wu, Lingjun Bu, Shiqing Zhou. Degradation of carbamazepine by vacuum-UV oxidation process: Kinetics modeling and energy efficiency. Journal of Hazardous Materials 2019, 368 , 178-185. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2019.01.043
  62. Can Wang, Siyi Lu, Zhiwei Zhang. Inactivation of airborne bacteria using different UV sources: Performance modeling, energy utilization, and endotoxin degradation. Science of The Total Environment 2019, 655 , 787-795. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.11.266
  63. Jing Deng, Mengyuan Xu, Shanfang Feng, Chungen Qiu, Xueyan Li, Jun Li. Iron-doped ordered mesoporous Co3O4 activation of peroxymonosulfate for ciprofloxacin degradation: Performance, mechanism and degradation pathway. Science of The Total Environment 2019, 658 , 343-356. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.12.187
  64. Shizong Wang, Jianlong Wang. Oxidative removal of carbamazepine by peroxymonosulfate (PMS) combined to ionizing radiation: Degradation, mineralization and biological toxicity. Science of The Total Environment 2019, 658 , 1367-1374. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.12.304
  65. Wenshan Nie, Qihang Mao, Yaobin Ding, Yue Hu, Heqing Tang. Highly efficient catalysis of chalcopyrite with surface bonded ferrous species for activation of peroxymonosulfate toward degradation of bisphenol A: A mechanism study. Journal of Hazardous Materials 2019, 364 , 59-68. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2018.09.078
  66. Xiaoguang Duan, Stacey Indrawirawan, Jian Kang, Wenjie Tian, Huayang Zhang, Hongqi Sun, Shaobin Wang. Temperature-dependent evolution of hydroxyl radicals from peroxymonosulfate activation over nitrogen-modified carbon nanotubes. Sustainable Materials and Technologies 2018, 18 , e00082. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.susmat.2018.e00082
  67. Lingjun Bu, Shiqing Zhou, Shumin Zhu, Yangtao Wu, Xiaodi Duan, Zhou Shi, Dionysios D. Dionysiou. Insight into carbamazepine degradation by UV/monochloramine: Reaction mechanism, oxidation products, and DBPs formation. Water Research 2018, 146 , 288-297. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2018.09.036
  68. Jing Deng, Mengyuan Xu, Chungen Qiu, Ya Chen, Xiaoyan Ma, Naiyun Gao, Xueyan Li. Magnetic MnFe2O4 activated peroxymonosulfate processes for degradation of bisphenol A: Performance, mechanism and application feasibility. Applied Surface Science 2018, 459 , 138-147. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2018.07.198
  69. Julong Sun, Lingjun Bu, Lin Deng, Zhou Shi, Shiqing Zhou. Removal of Microcystis aeruginosa by UV/chlorine process: Inactivation mechanism and microcystins degradation. Chemical Engineering Journal 2018, 349 , 408-415. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2018.05.116