Photochemical Protection of Reactive Sites on Defective TiO2–x Surface for Electrochemical Water Treatment

  • Chang Liu
    Chang Liu
    CAS Key Laboratory of Urban Pollutant Conversion, Department of Applied Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026, China
    More by Chang Liu
  • Ai-Yong Zhang*
    Ai-Yong Zhang
    CAS Key Laboratory of Urban Pollutant Conversion, Department of Applied Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026, China
    Department of Municipal Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, 230009, China
    *E-mail: [email protected] (A.-Y.Z.).
  • Yang Si
    Yang Si
    CAS Key Laboratory of Urban Pollutant Conversion, Department of Applied Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026, China
    More by Yang Si
  • Dan-Ni Pei
    Dan-Ni Pei
    CAS Key Laboratory of Urban Pollutant Conversion, Department of Applied Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026, China
    More by Dan-Ni Pei
  • , and 
  • Han-Qing Yu*
    Han-Qing Yu
    CAS Key Laboratory of Urban Pollutant Conversion, Department of Applied Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026, China
    *E-mail: [email protected] (H.-Q.Y.).
    More by Han-Qing Yu
Cite this: Environ. Sci. Technol. 2019, 53, 13, 7641–7652
Publication Date (Web):May 31, 2019
https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.9b01307
Copyright © 2019 American Chemical Society
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Abstract

The electrode is the key in electrochemical process for water and wastewater treatment. Many nonstoichiometric metal oxides are active electrode materials but have poor stability under strong anodic polarization due to their susceptible nature of the oxygen vacancies on surface and subsurface as defective reactive sites. In this work, a novel photochemical protecting strategy is proposed to stabilize the defective reactive sites on the TiO2–x surface and subsurface for long-term anodic oxidation of pollutants. With this strategy, a novel photoassisted electrochemical system at low anodic bias is further constructed. Such a system exhibits a high protecting capacity at a low operation cost for electrochemical degradation of bisphenol A (BPA), a typical persistent organic pollutant. Its excellent photochemical protecting capacity is found to be mainly attributed to the mild non-band-gap excitation pathways on the defective TiO2–x electrode under both visible-light irradiation and moderate anodic polarization. Under real sunlight irradiation, a 20 run cyclic test for BPA degradation demonstrates the excellent performance and stability of the constructed system at low bias without significant oxygen evolution. Our work provides a new opportunity to utilize the defective and reactive TiO2–x for efficient, stable, and cost-effective electrochemical water treatment with the aid of its photo- and electrochemical bifunctional properties.

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The Supporting Information is available free of charge on the ACS Publications website at DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.9b01307.

  • Experimental details, characterizations and catalytic properties of TiO2–x, PbO2, Sb-doped SnO2, RuO2, and BDD, cyclic pollutant degradation tests, BPA degradation in different electrolytes, pollutant degradation at different Na2SO4 concentrations, BPA mass transfer rate constants, BPA photochemical degradation tests, PEC treatment of real water samples, PC and EC activation of TiO2–x, BPA degradation pathway in PEC, characteristics of EIS, and BPA removal behaviors (PDF)

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