Application of Cobalt/Peracetic Acid to Degrade Sulfamethoxazole at Neutral Condition: Efficiency and Mechanisms

  • Zongping Wang
    Zongping Wang
    School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China
  • Jingwen Wang
    Jingwen Wang
    School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China
    More by Jingwen Wang
  • Bin Xiong
    Bin Xiong
    School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China
    More by Bin Xiong
  • Fan Bai
    Fan Bai
    School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China
    More by Fan Bai
  • Songlin Wang
    Songlin Wang
    School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China
    More by Songlin Wang
  • Ying Wan
    Ying Wan
    School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China
    More by Ying Wan
  • Li Zhang
    Li Zhang
    School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China
    More by Li Zhang
  • Pengchao Xie*
    Pengchao Xie
    School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China
    Center for the Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology (CEINT), Durham, North Carolina 27708-0287, United States
    *E-mail: [email protected]
    More by Pengchao Xie
  • , and 
  • Mark R. Wiesner
    Mark R. Wiesner
    Center for the Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology (CEINT), Durham, North Carolina 27708-0287, United States
Cite this: Environ. Sci. Technol. 2020, 54, 1, 464–475
Publication Date (Web):November 25, 2019
https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.9b04528
Copyright © 2019 American Chemical Society
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Abstract

An advanced oxidation process of combining cobalt and peracetic acid (Co/PAA) was developed to degrade sulfamethoxazole (SMX) in this study. The formed acetylperoxy radical (CH3CO3) through the activation of PAA by Co (Co2+) was the dominant radical responsible for SMX degradation, and acetoxyl radical (CH3CO2) might also have played a role. The efficient redox cycle of Co3+/Co2+ allows good removal efficiency of SMX even at quite low dosage of Co (<1 μM). The presence of H2O2 in the Co/PAA process has a negative effect on the degradation of SMX due to the competition for reactive radicals. The SMX degradation in the Co/PAA process is pH dependent, and the optimum reaction pH is near-neutral. Humic acid and HCO3 can inhibit SMX degradation in the Co/PAA process, while the presence of Cl plays a little role in the degradation of SMX in this system. Although transformation products of SMX in the Co/PAA system show higher acute toxicity, the low Co dose and SMX concentration in aquatic solution can efficiently weaken the acute toxicity. After reaction in the Co/PAA process, numerous carbon sources that could be provided for bacteria and algae growth can be produced, suggesting that the proposed Co/PAA process has good potential when combined with the biotreatment processes.

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