Recovery of Phosphorus from Hypophosphite-Laden Wastewater: A Single-Compartment Photoelectrocatalytic Cell System Integrating Oxidation and Precipitation

  • Juanjuan Zhang
    Juanjuan Zhang
    Key Laboratory of Drinking Water Science and Technology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, P. R. China
    University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, P. R. China
  • Xu Zhao*
    Xu Zhao
    Key Laboratory of Drinking Water Science and Technology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, P. R. China
    University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, P. R. China
    *E-mail: [email protected]. Phone/Fax: +86-10-62849667.
    More by Xu Zhao
  • Yan Wang
    Yan Wang
    Key Laboratory of Drinking Water Science and Technology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, P. R. China
    More by Yan Wang
  • , and 
  • Ridha Djellabi
    Ridha Djellabi
    Key Laboratory of Drinking Water Science and Technology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, P. R. China
Cite this: Environ. Sci. Technol. 2020, 54, 2, 1204–1213
Publication Date (Web):December 26, 2019
https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.9b05125
Copyright © 2019 American Chemical Society
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Abstract

Recovery of phosphorus through precipitation from hypophosphite-laden wastewater is more difficult than from orthophosphate-laden wastewater because of the higher solubility of hypophosphite (H2PO2). Herein, a single-compartment photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) cell system consisting of a TiO2/Ni–Sb–SnO2 bifunctional photoanode and an activated carbon fiber (ACF) cathode with dosing Fe2+ ions was developed for recovery of phosphorus in the form of FePO4 from hypophosphite-laden wastewater. In the PEC process, H2PO2 with an initial concentration of 1.0 mM was completely oxidized and recovered within 30 min at 3.0 V, and the pseudo-first-order rate constant of H2PO2 oxidation was ∼4 times than that in the electrocatalytic process and even ∼89 times than that in the photocatalytic process. The bifunctional photoanode can simultaneously generate OH radicals and O3; the ACF cathode can electrogenerate H2O2; H2O2, O3, and the added Fe2+ can interact with each other to produce OH radicals and Fe3+ ions. OH radicals mainly from the Fenton process were responsible for oxidation of H2PO2 to PO43–, which immediately combined with Fe3+ to form FePO4 at the optimized conditions to realize recovery of phosphorus. The long-term stability of this system was demonstrated. The efficiency for actual electroless nickel plating effluents was exhibited.

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The Supporting Information is available free of charge at https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.est.9b05125.

  • Fabrication of anodes; characterization of the TNA/NSS; Detection of •OH radicals; calculation of Faradaic efficiencies; effects of unwanted redox reactions, asymmetric electrode system, symmetric electrode system, irradiation, H2O2, and O3; regeneration process of ACF; treatment of effluents; SEM images; EDS mapping imaging; XPS spectra; RNO removal; adsorption of RNO, H2PO2, HPO32–, and PO43– on ACF; pseudo-first-order rate constants; generated intermediates and P mass balance; change of current density and single-electrode potential; concentration variation; comparison of full reactions and half reactions; H2PO2 oxidation and P recovery; time-profiled H2O2 production, •OH radicals production, and H2O2 production; efficiency of H2PO2 oxidation and PO43– regeneration; percentage distribution; variation of pH; SEM-EDS image; cycling experiments; leaching Ni, Sb, and Sn; XRD patterns and corresponding SEM images; performance of conventional chemical-Fenton reaction and constructed PEC system; charge efficiency and energy consumption; characteristics of the real ENP effluents; and cost-effectiveness of P recovery (PDF)

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Cited By


This article is cited by 6 publications.

  1. Yicheng Wang, Philipp Kuntke, Michel Saakes, Renata D. van der Weijden, Cees J.N. Buisman, Yang Lei. Electrochemically mediated precipitation of phosphate minerals for phosphorus removal and recovery: Progress and perspective. Water Research 2022, 209 , 117891. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2021.117891
  2. Chao Xing, Jing Shi, Fengmin Cui, Junchaofan Shen, Hao Li. Fe2+/H2O2-Strengite method with the enhanced settlement for phosphorus removal and recovery from pharmaceutical effluents. Chemosphere 2021, 277 , 130343. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.130343
  3. Rahul Kumar Goswami, Sanjeet Mehariya, Pradeep Verma, Roberto Lavecchia, Antonio Zuorro. Microalgae-based biorefineries for sustainable resource recovery from wastewater. Journal of Water Process Engineering 2021, 40 , 101747. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jwpe.2020.101747
  4. Xuewei Li, Xu Zhao, Xiaowen Zhou, Bo Yang. Phosphate recovery from aqueous solution via struvite crystallization based on electrochemical-decomposition of nature magnesite. Journal of Cleaner Production 2021, 292 , 126039. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2021.126039
  5. Damián Monllor-Satoca, Pedro Bonete, Ridha Djellabi, Giuseppina Cerrato, Lorenza Operti, Roberto Gómez, Claudia Letizia Bianchi. Comparative Photo-Electrochemical and Photocatalytic Studies with Nanosized TiO2 Photocatalysts towards Organic Pollutants Oxidation. Catalysts 2021, 11 (3) , 349. https://doi.org/10.3390/catal11030349
  6. Juanjuan Zhang, Ridha Djellabi, Shen Zhao, Meng Qiao, Feng Jiang, Mingquan Yan, Xu Zhao. Recovery of phosphorus and metallic nickel along with HCl production from electroless nickel plating effluents: The key role of three-compartment photoelectrocatalytic cell system. Journal of Hazardous Materials 2020, 394 , 122559. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.122559