Both Fe(IV) and Radicals Are Active Oxidants in the Fe(II)/Peroxydisulfate Process

  • Hongyu Dong
    Hongyu Dong
    State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China
    Shanghai Institute of Pollution Control and Ecological Security, Shanghai 200092, China
    More by Hongyu Dong
  • Yang Li
    Yang Li
    State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China
    Shanghai Institute of Pollution Control and Ecological Security, Shanghai 200092, China
    More by Yang Li
  • Shuchang Wang
    Shuchang Wang
    State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China
    Shanghai Institute of Pollution Control and Ecological Security, Shanghai 200092, China
  • Weifan Liu
    Weifan Liu
    State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China
    Shanghai Institute of Pollution Control and Ecological Security, Shanghai 200092, China
    More by Weifan Liu
  • Gongming Zhou
    Gongming Zhou
    State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China
    Shanghai Institute of Pollution Control and Ecological Security, Shanghai 200092, China
  • Yifan Xie
    Yifan Xie
    State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China
    Shanghai Institute of Pollution Control and Ecological Security, Shanghai 200092, China
    More by Yifan Xie
  • , and 
  • Xiaohong Guan*
    Xiaohong Guan
    State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China
    Shanghai Institute of Pollution Control and Ecological Security, Shanghai 200092, China
    International Joint Research Center for Sustainable Urban Water System, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, P. R. China
    *Email: [email protected]. Phone: +86-21-65983869. Fax: +86-21-65986313.
Cite this: Environ. Sci. Technol. Lett. 2020, 7, 3, 219–224
Publication Date (Web):February 12, 2020
https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.estlett.0c00025
Copyright © 2020 American Chemical Society
Article Views
2578
Altmetric
-
Citations
LEARN ABOUT THESE METRICS
Read OnlinePDF (1 MB)
Supporting Info (1)»

Abstract

The question of whether Fe(IV) or SO4•– is the dominant intermediate in the Fe(II)-activated peroxydisulfate process [Fe(II)/PDS process] remains unanswered. In this study, besides Fe(IV), SO4•– and HO were shown to be produced in the Fe(II)/PDS process by using multiple probes [dimethyl sulfoxide, methyl phenyl sulfoxide, p-nitrobenzoic acid (p-NBA), and benzoic acid (BA)]. The removal of p-NBA and BA and the influence of BA on the yield of methyl phenyl sulfone (PMSO2) indicated that the major oxidizing intermediate changed from Fe(IV) to SO4•–/HO with an increase in the PDS/Fe(II) molar ratio at pH 3.0. Fe(IV), SO4•–, and HO were all involved in this process at pH 3.0–6.5, but their available amounts that contributed to abating organic contaminants decreased with an increase in pH considering the influence of pH on the generation of PMSO2 and p-hydroxybenzoic acid. Furthermore, Fe(IV), SO4•–, and HO contributed differently to abating different organic contaminants because of the different reactivities of these oxidizing oxidants toward different organic contaminants. Overall, this study demonstrates that multiple oxidizing species [Fe(IV), SO4•–, and HO] are generated in the Fe(II)/PDS process, which was significant for the application of this process and understanding the mechanisms of Fe(II)-activated peroxide processes.

Supporting Information

ARTICLE SECTIONS
Jump To

The Supporting Information is available free of charge at https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.estlett.0c00025.

  • Texts S1–S6, Figures S1–S8, and Tables S1 and S2 (PDF)

Terms & Conditions

Most electronic Supporting Information files are available without a subscription to ACS Web Editions. Such files may be downloaded by article for research use (if there is a public use license linked to the relevant article, that license may permit other uses). Permission may be obtained from ACS for other uses through requests via the RightsLink permission system: http://pubs.acs.org/page/copyright/permissions.html.

Cited By


This article is cited by 63 publications.

  1. Hongyu Dong, Qinghua Xu, Lushi Lian, Yang Li, Shuchang Wang, Cong Li, Xiaohong Guan. Degradation of Organic Contaminants in the Fe(II)/Peroxymonosulfate Process under Acidic Conditions: The Overlooked Rapid Oxidation Stage. Environmental Science & Technology 2021, 55 (22) , 15390-15399. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.1c04563
  2. Zihao Zhao, Xinhong Li, Hongchao Li, Jieshu Qian, Bingcai Pan. New Insights into the Activation of Peracetic Acid by Co(II): Role of Co(II)-Peracetic Acid Complex as the Dominant Intermediate Oxidant. ACS ES&T Engineering 2021, 1 (10) , 1432-1440. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsestengg.1c00166
  3. Jun Liang, Xiaoguang Duan, Xiaoyun Xu, Kexin Chen, Yue Zhang, Ling Zhao, Hao Qiu, Shaobin Wang, Xinde Cao. Persulfate Oxidation of Sulfamethoxazole by Magnetic Iron-Char Composites via Nonradical Pathways: Fe(IV) Versus Surface-Mediated Electron Transfer. Environmental Science & Technology 2021, 55 (14) , 10077-10086. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.1c01618
  4. Jianzhi Huang, Adele Jones, T. David Waite, Yiling Chen, Xiaopeng Huang, Kevin M. Rosso, Andreas Kappler, Muammar Mansor, Paul G. Tratnyek, Huichun Zhang. Fe(II) Redox Chemistry in the Environment. Chemical Reviews 2021, 121 (13) , 8161-8233. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.chemrev.0c01286
  5. Yang Zong, Yufei Shao, Yunqiao Zeng, Binbin Shao, Longqian Xu, Zhenyu Zhao, Wen Liu, Deli Wu. Enhanced Oxidation of Organic Contaminants by Iron(II)-Activated Periodate: The Significance of High-Valent Iron–Oxo Species. Environmental Science & Technology 2021, 55 (11) , 7634-7642. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.1c00375
  6. Kun Qian, Hong Chen, Wenlang Li, Zhimin Ao, Yi-nan Wu, Xiaohong Guan. Single-Atom Fe Catalyst Outperforms Its Homogeneous Counterpart for Activating Peroxymonosulfate to Achieve Effective Degradation of Organic Contaminants. Environmental Science & Technology 2021, 55 (10) , 7034-7043. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.0c08805
  7. Hongchao Li, Zihao Zhao, Jieshu Qian, Bingcai Pan. Are Free Radicals the Primary Reactive Species in Co(II)-Mediated Activation of Peroxymonosulfate? New Evidence for the Role of the Co(II)–Peroxymonosulfate Complex. Environmental Science & Technology 2021, 55 (9) , 6397-6406. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.1c02015
  8. Yangke Long, Jian Dai, Shiyin Zhao, Yiping Su, Zhongying Wang, Zuotai Zhang. Atomically Dispersed Cobalt Sites on Graphene as Efficient Periodate Activators for Selective Organic Pollutant Degradation. Environmental Science & Technology 2021, 55 (8) , 5357-5370. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.0c07794
  9. Cong Luo, Mingbao Feng, Tianqi Zhang, Virender K. Sharma, Ching-Hua Huang. Ferrate(VI) Oxidation of Pharmaceuticals in Hydrolyzed Urine: Enhancement by Creatinine and the Role of Fe(IV). ACS ES&T Water 2021, 1 (4) , 969-979. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsestwater.0c00255
  10. Yang Zong, Xiaohong Guan, Jun Xu, Yong Feng, Yunfeng Mao, Longqian Xu, Huaqiang Chu, Deli Wu. Unraveling the Overlooked Involvement of High-Valent Cobalt-Oxo Species Generated from the Cobalt(II)-Activated Peroxymonosulfate Process. Environmental Science & Technology 2020, 54 (24) , 16231-16239. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.0c06808
  11. Sheng Liang, Liuyi Zhu, Jian Hua, Weijian Duan, Puu-Tai Yang, Shan-Li Wang, Chaohai Wei, Chengshuai Liu, Chunhua Feng. Fe2+/HClO Reaction Produces FeIVO2+: An Enhanced Advanced Oxidation Process. Environmental Science & Technology 2020, 54 (10) , 6406-6414. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.0c00218
  12. Wei Ren, Gang Nie, Peng Zhou, Hui Zhang, Xiaoguang Duan, Shaobin Wang. The Intrinsic Nature of Persulfate Activation and N-Doping in Carbocatalysis. Environmental Science & Technology 2020, 54 (10) , 6438-6447. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.0c01161
  13. Hannah Milh, Deirdre Cabooter, Raf Dewil. Degradation of sulfamethoxazole by ferrous iron activated peroxymonosulfate: Elucidation of the degradation mechanism and influence of process parameters. Chemical Engineering Journal 2022, 430 , 132875. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2021.132875
  14. Ericson Escobedo, Kangwoo Cho, Yoon-Seok Chang. Electrochemical activation of hydrogen peroxide, persulfate, and free chlorine using sacrificial iron anodes for decentralized wastewater treatment. Journal of Hazardous Materials 2022, 423 , 127068. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.127068
  15. Yuan Li, Yanlin Wu, Wenbo Dong. Trace catechin enhanced degradation of organic pollutants with activated peroxymonosulfate: Comprehensive identification of working oxidizing species. Chemical Engineering Journal 2022, 429 , 132408. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2021.132408
  16. Ge Gao, Lei Zhang, Yixin Shi, Shengjiong Yang, Gen Wang, Huining Xu, Dahu Ding, Rongzhi Chen, Pengkang Jin, Xiaochang C. Wang. Mutual-activation between Zero-Valent iron and graphitic carbon for Cr(VI) Removal: Mechanism and inhibition of inherent Side-reaction. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 2022, 608 , 588-598. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2021.09.138
  17. Qiuye Jin, Dingyu Ji, Yanghan Chen, Zhaomin Tang, Yongsheng Fu. Kinetics and pathway of levofloxacin degradation by ferrate(VI) and reaction mechanism of catalytic degradation by copper sulfide. Separation and Purification Technology 2022, 282 , 120104. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seppur.2021.120104
  18. Yang Zong, Hua Zhang, Xiaomeng Zhang, Wen Liu, Longqian Xu, Deli Wu. High-valent cobalt-oxo species triggers hydroxyl radical for collaborative environmental decontamination. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 2022, 300 , 120722. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcatb.2021.120722
  19. Yaobin Ding, Libin Fu, Xueqin Peng, Ming Lei, Chengjun Wang, Jizhou Jiang. Copper catalysts for radical and nonradical persulfate based advanced oxidation processes: Certainties and uncertainties. Chemical Engineering Journal 2022, 427 , 131776. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2021.131776
  20. Jingwen Wang, Zongping Wang, Yujie Cheng, Lisan Cao, Pengchao Xie, Jun Ma. Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) promoted sulfamethoxazole degradation in the Fe(III)/peracetic acid process. Separation and Purification Technology 2022, 281 , 119854. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seppur.2021.119854
  21. Dongqi Tian, Hongyu Zhou, Heng Zhang, Peng Zhou, Junjie You, Gang Yao, Zhicheng Pan, Yang Liu, Bo Lai. Heterogeneous photocatalyst-driven persulfate activation process under visible light irradiation: From basic catalyst design principles to novel enhancement strategies. Chemical Engineering Journal 2022, 428 , 131166. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2021.131166
  22. Hannah Milh, Jasper Pessemier, Deirdre Cabooter, Raf Dewil. Removal of sulfamethoxazole by ferrous iron activation of persulfate: Optimization of dosing strategy and degradation mechanism. Science of The Total Environment 2021, 799 , 149159. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.149159
  23. Yang Zong, Hua Zhang, Xiaomeng Zhang, Yufei Shao, Yunqiao Zeng, Wenjie Ji, Longqian Xu, Deli Wu. Highly selective oxidation of organic contaminants in the RuIII-activated peroxymonosulfate process: The dominance of RuVO species. Chemosphere 2021, 285 , 131544. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.131544
  24. Huabin Zeng, Huachun Lan, Xiaoqiang An, Eveliina Repo, Yuri Park, Olga Pastushok, Huijuan Liu, Jiuhui Qu. Insight into electroreductive activation process of peroxydisulfate for eliminating organic pollution: Essential role of atomic hydrogen. Chemical Engineering Journal 2021, 426 , 128355. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2020.128355
  25. Yajie Wang, Xianhe Gong, Xin Dong, Yunjie Wu. Arsenite removal in a goethite/oxalate system under UVA irradiation: Roles of different reactive species in acidic and neutral conditions. Journal of Molecular Structure 2021, 1245 , 131065. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molstruc.2021.131065
  26. Jinbin Lin, Jing Zou, Hengyu Cai, Yixin Huang, Jiawen Li, Junyang Xiao, Baoling Yuan, Jun Ma. Hydroxylamine enhanced Fe(II)-activated peracetic acid process for diclofenac degradation: Efficiency, mechanism and effects of various parameters. Water Research 2021, 207 , 117796. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2021.117796
  27. Yu Li, Yong Feng, Bin Yang, Zequn Yang, Kaimin Shih. Activation of dissolved molecular oxygen by ascorbic acid-mediated circulation of copper(II): Applications and limitations. Separation and Purification Technology 2021, 275 , 119186. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seppur.2021.119186
  28. Yu Li, Yong Feng, Bin Yang, Zequn Yang, Kaimin Shih. Activation of peroxymonosulfate by molybdenum disulfide-mediated traces of Fe(III) for sulfadiazine degradation. Chemosphere 2021, 283 , 131212. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.131212
  29. Feng Cheng, Peng Zhou, Yang Liu, Xiaowei Huo, Jian Zhang, Yue Yuan, Heng Zhang, Bo Lai, Yongli Zhang. Graphene oxide mediated Fe(III) reduction for enhancing Fe(III)/H2O2 Fenton and photo-Fenton oxidation toward chloramphenicol degradation. Science of The Total Environment 2021, 797 , 149097. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.149097
  30. Jun Liang, Xiaoguang Duan, Xiaoyun Xu, Kexin Chen, Fei Wu, Hao Qiu, Chengshuai Liu, Shaobin Wang, Xinde Cao. Biomass-derived pyrolytic carbons accelerated Fe(III)/Fe(II) redox cycle for persulfate activation: Pyrolysis temperature-depended performance and mechanisms. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 2021, 297 , 120446. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcatb.2021.120446
  31. Xiaoyan Ma, Cheng Ye, Jing Deng, Anhong Cai, Xiao Ling, Jun Li, Xueyan Li. Elucidating the role of Fe(IV) and radical species for CBZ degradation in FeS2/PS system. Separation and Purification Technology 2021, 274 , 118982. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seppur.2021.118982
  32. Youyou Hu, Siyu Sun, Mengshan Xu, Jialin Guo, Zhengkui Li. Efficient degradation of aqueous organic contaminants in manganese(II)/peroxymonosulfate system assisted by pyridine organic ligands. Science of The Total Environment 2021, 24 , 151441. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.151441
  33. Kunjie Hou, Zhoujie Pi, Fei Chen, Li He, Fubing Yao, Shengjie Chen, Xiaoming Li, Dongbo Wang, Haoran Dong, Qi Yang. Peroxymonosulfate (PMS) activation by mackinawite for the degradation of organic pollutants: Underappreciated role of dissolved sulfur derivatives. Science of The Total Environment 2021, 37 , 151421. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.151421
  34. Huiwang Dai, Wenjun Zhou, Wei Wang, Zhiqi Liu. Unveiling the role of cobalt species in the Co/N-C catalysts-induced peroxymonosulfate activation process. Journal of Hazardous Materials 2021, 38 , 127784. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.127784
  35. Ran Yang, Qianqian Chang, Na Li, Hu Yang. Synergistically enhanced activation of persulfate for efficient oxidation of organic contaminants using a microscale zero-valent aluminum/Fe-bearing clay composite. Chemical Engineering Journal 2021, 180 , 133682. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2021.133682
  36. Libo Zhang, Lianxiang Qiu, Qingyao Zhu, Xiong Liang, Jingxiong Huang, Mengting Yang, Zhenxuan Zhang, Jiang Ma, Jun Shen. Insight into efficient degradation of 3,5-dichlorosalicylic acid by Fe-Si-B amorphous ribbon under neutral condition. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 2021, 294 , 120258. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcatb.2021.120258
  37. Haiyuan Chi, Jinquan Wan, Xiaoxia Zhou, Jian Sun, Bing Yan. [email protected] activated peroxymonosulfate system for effectively degrading emerging contaminants: Analysis of the formation and activation mechanism of Fe coordinately unsaturated metal sites. Journal of Hazardous Materials 2021, 419 , 126535. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.126535
  38. Zhengyuan Zhou, Jingyao Huang, Muhammad Danish, Guilu Zeng, Rumin Yang, Xiaogang Gu, Meesam Ali, Shuguang Lyu. Insights into enhanced removal of 1,2-dichloroethane by amorphous boron-enhanced Fenton system: Performances and mechanisms. Journal of Hazardous Materials 2021, 420 , 126589. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.126589
  39. Bingkun Huang, Zhaokun Xiong, Peng Zhou, Heng Zhang, Zhicheng Pan, Gang Yao, Bo Lai. Ultrafast degradation of contaminants in a trace cobalt(II) activated peroxymonosulfate process triggered through borate: Indispensable role of intermediate complex. Journal of Hazardous Materials 2021, 335 , 127641. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.127641
  40. Jinbin Lin, Yuye Hu, Junyang Xiao, Yixin Huang, Mengyun Wang, Haoyu Yang, Jing Zou, Baoling Yuan, Jun Ma. Enhanced diclofenac elimination in Fe(II)/peracetic acid process by promoting Fe(III)/Fe(II) cycle with ABTS as electron shuttle. Chemical Engineering Journal 2021, 420 , 129692. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2021.129692
  41. Yuanxiang Mao, Jialiang Liang, Fangying Ji, Huiyu Dong, Lei Jiang, Qiushi Shen, Qian Zhang. Accelerated degradation of pharmaceuticals by ferrous ion/chlorine process: Roles of Fe(IV) and reactive chlorine species. Science of The Total Environment 2021, 787 , 147584. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.147584
  42. Zhuo-Yu Li, Yu-Lei Liu, Pei-Nan He, Xin Zhang, Lu Wang, Hai-Teng Gu, Hao-Chen Zhang, Jun Ma. Further understanding the role of hydroxylamine in transformation of reactive species in Fe(II)/peroxydisulfate system. Chemical Engineering Journal 2021, 418 , 129464. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2021.129464
  43. Banghai Liu, Wanqian Guo, Wenrui Jia, Huazhe Wang, Shanshan Zheng, Qishi Si, Qi Zhao, Haichao Luo, Jin Jiang, Nanqi Ren. Insights into the oxidation of organic contaminants by Co(II) activated peracetic acid: The overlooked role of high-valent cobalt-oxo species. Water Research 2021, 201 , 117313. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2021.117313
  44. Leiduo Lai, Yongli He, Hongyu Zhou, Bingkun Huang, Gang Yao, Bo Lai. Critical review of natural iron-based minerals used as heterogeneous catalysts in peroxide activation processes: Characteristics, applications and mechanisms. Journal of Hazardous Materials 2021, 416 , 125809. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.125809
  45. Banghai Liu, Wanqian Guo, Huazhe Wang, Shanshan Zheng, Qishi Si, Qi Zhao, Haichao Luo, Nanqi Ren. Peroxymonosulfate activation by cobalt(II) for degradation of organic contaminants via high-valent cobalt-oxo and radical species. Journal of Hazardous Materials 2021, 416 , 125679. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.125679
  46. Xiaoping Li, Shengjiong Yang, Mawuli Dzakpasu, Shengshuo Xu, Dahu Ding, Gen Wang, Rongzhi Chen, Pengkang Jin, Xiaochang C. Wang. Galvanic corrosion of zero-valent iron to intensify Fe2+ generation for peroxymonosulfate activation. Chemical Engineering Journal 2021, 417 , 128023. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2020.128023
  47. Han Chen, Tao Lin, Shisheng Zhang, Hang Xu, Hui Tao, Wei Chen. Novel FeII/EDDS/UV/PAA advanced oxidation process: Mechanisms and applications for naproxen degradation at neutral pH and low FeII dosage. Chemical Engineering Journal 2021, 417 , 127896. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2020.127896
  48. Nasiru Abba Mustapha, Hui Liu, Abdullateef Omeiza Ibrahim, Yao Huang, Shan Liu. Degradation of aniline in groundwater by persulfate with natural subsurface sediment as the activator. Chemical Engineering Journal 2021, 417 , 128078. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2020.128078
  49. Hengduo Xu, Yanqing Sheng. New insights into the degradation of chloramphenicol and fluoroquinolone antibiotics by peroxymonosulfate activated with FeS: Performance and mechanism. Chemical Engineering Journal 2021, 414 , 128823. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2021.128823
  50. Zhuang-Song Huang, Lu Wang, Yu-Lei Liu, Hong-Yan Zhang, Xiao-Na Zhao, Yang Bai, Jun Ma. Ferrate self-decomposition in water is also a self-activation process: Role of Fe(V) species and enhancement with Fe(III) in methyl phenyl sulfoxide oxidation by excess ferrate. Water Research 2021, 197 , 117094. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2021.117094
  51. Ting Guo, Lisha Jiang, Kai Wang, Yuan Li, Hongxia Huang, Xiaoyong Wu, Gaoke Zhang. Efficient persulfate activation by hematite nanocrystals for degradation of organic pollutants under visible light irradiation: Facet-dependent catalytic performance and degradation mechanism. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 2021, 286 , 119883. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcatb.2021.119883
  52. Zhuo-Yu Li, Lu Wang, Yu-Lei Liu, Pei-Nan He, Xin Zhang, Jia Chen, Hai-Teng Gu, Hao-Chen Zhang, Jun Ma. Overlooked enhancement of chloride ion on the transformation of reactive species in peroxymonosulfate/Fe(II)/NH2OH system. Water Research 2021, 195 , 116973. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2021.116973
  53. Yaobin Ding, Xueru Wang, Libin Fu, Xueqin Peng, Cong Pan, Qihang Mao, Chengjun Wang, Jingchun Yan. Nonradicals induced degradation of organic pollutants by peroxydisulfate (PDS) and peroxymonosulfate (PMS): Recent advances and perspective. Science of The Total Environment 2021, 765 , 142794. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.142794
  54. Kunjie Hou, Zhoujie Pi, Fubing Yao, Bo Wu, Li He, Xiaoming Li, Dongbo Wang, Haoran Dong, Qi Yang. A critical review on the mechanisms of persulfate activation by iron-based materials: Clarifying some ambiguity and controversies. Chemical Engineering Journal 2021, 407 , 127078. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2020.127078
  55. Fei Chen, Lian-Lian Liu, Jie-Jie Chen, Wen-Wei Li, You-Peng Chen, Ying-Jie Zhang, Jing-Hang Wu, Shu-Chuan Mei, Qi Yang, Han-Qing Yu. Efficient decontamination of organic pollutants under high salinity conditions by a nonradical peroxymonosulfate activation system. Water Research 2021, 191 , 116799. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2020.116799
  56. Huiyu Dong, Shule Duan, Lingfei Li, Zhimin Qiang. Sulfate radical-based advanced oxidation processes for industrial wastewater treatment. 2021,,, 431-462. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-823031-2.00017-3
  57. Yu Wang, Yang Wu, Yafei Yu, Tao Pan, Dantong Li, Dimitra Lambropoulou, Xin Yang. Natural polyphenols enhanced the Cu(II)/peroxymonosulfate (PMS) oxidation: The contribution of Cu(III) and HO•. Water Research 2020, 186 , 116326. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2020.116326
  58. Peng Zhou, Feng Cheng, Gang Nie, Yangyang Yang, Kunsheng Hu, Xiaoguang Duan, Yongli Zhang, Shaobin Wang. Boron carbide boosted Fenton-like oxidation: A novel Fe(III)/Fe(II) circulation. Green Energy & Environment 2020, 5 (4) , 414-422. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gee.2020.09.007
  59. Zhiang Shao, Xiangming Hu, Weimin Cheng, Yanyun Zhao, Jiaoyun Hou, Mingyue Wu, Di Xue, Yuhao Wang. Degradable self-adhesive epidermal sensors prepared from conductive nanocomposite hydrogel. Nanoscale 2020, 12 (36) , 18771-18781. https://doi.org/10.1039/D0NR04666C
  60. Junlian Qiao, Yiwei Guo, Hongyu Dong, Xiaohong Guan, Gongming Zhou, Yuankui Sun. Activated peroxydisulfate by sulfidated zero-valent iron for enhanced organic micropollutants removal from water. Chemical Engineering Journal 2020, 396 , 125301. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2020.125301
  61. Qianlinglin Qiu, Guoxiang Li, Yi Dai, Yaoyang Xu, Peng Bao. Removal of antibiotic resistant microbes by Fe(II)-activated persulfate oxidation. Journal of Hazardous Materials 2020, 396 , 122733. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.122733
  62. Shi-Qi Tian, Lu Wang, Yu-Lei Liu, Jun Ma. Degradation of organic pollutants by ferrate/biochar: Enhanced formation of strong intermediate oxidative iron species. Water Research 2020, 183 , 116054. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2020.116054
  63. Han Chen, Tao Lin, Wei Chen, Hang Xu, Hui Tao. Significant role of high-valent iron-oxo species in the degradation and detoxification of indomethacine. Chemosphere 2020, 251 , 126451. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.126451