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Atomic Modulation Engineering of Hexagon-Shaped CeO2 Nanocrystals by In Situ Sculpturing of an Electron Beam

  • Weiwei Xia
    Weiwei Xia
    SEU-FEI Nano-Pico Center, Key Laboratory of MEMS of Ministry of Education, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, China
    Shanxi Materials Analysis and Research Center, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710000, China
    Center for Functional Nanomaterials, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, United States
    More by Weiwei Xia
  • Jing Mao
    Jing Mao
    Center for Functional Nanomaterials, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, United States
    School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China
    More by Jing Mao
  • Feng Xu*
    Feng Xu
    SEU-FEI Nano-Pico Center, Key Laboratory of MEMS of Ministry of Education, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, China
    *Email: [email protected]
    More by Feng Xu
  • Mingxing Gong
    Mingxing Gong
    Center for Functional Nanomaterials, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, United States
    Key Laboratory of Material Chemistry for Energy Conversion and Storage, Ministry of Education, Hubei Key Laboratory of Material Chemistry and Service Failure, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China
  • Xiaodong Tan
    Xiaodong Tan
    SEU-FEI Nano-Pico Center, Key Laboratory of MEMS of Ministry of Education, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, China
    More by Xiaodong Tan
  • Yuting Shen
    Yuting Shen
    SEU-FEI Nano-Pico Center, Key Laboratory of MEMS of Ministry of Education, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, China
    College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu 215500, China
    More by Yuting Shen
  • Litao Sun*
    Litao Sun
    SEU-FEI Nano-Pico Center, Key Laboratory of MEMS of Ministry of Education, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, China
    *Email: [email protected]
    More by Litao Sun
  • , and 
  • Huolin L. Xin*
    Huolin L. Xin
    Center for Functional Nanomaterials, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, United States
    Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92697, United States
    *Email: [email protected]
Cite this: J. Phys. Chem. C 2020, 124, 31, 17006–17014
Publication Date (Web):July 8, 2020
https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpcc.0c04106
Copyright © 2020 American Chemical Society
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Abstract

Electron beam sculpturing is one of the most important top-down strategies for fabricating nanostructures with desired morphologies. However, to keep up with the rapid development of nanofabrication and expand the applications in various industries, the types of studied materials and image precision still have to be improved to get a comprehensive and in-depth understanding of carving mechanisms. Here, by steering a high-energy electron beam, we directly fabricate hexagon-shaped CeO2 nanocrystals exposed with {200} and {111} facets using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). With atomic resolution, in situ observations reveal the detailed transformation mechanism from a wire to a hexagon, including layer-by-layer removal, notch etching, and nanovoid formation. Our analyses show that the etching rates of different exposed facets and surrounding neighbors should be responsible for the three sculpturing modes. These works provide crucial insights into how the electron beam can be used as an effective tool to tailor the crystalline facets and sculpture oxide crystals into varied morphologies, with the hope of assistance in broadening their applications in various fields.

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The Supporting Information is available free of charge at https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.jpcc.0c04106.

  • Formation process of a hexagon-shaped CeO2 recorded in real time via in situ HRTEM (Video S1) (MP4)

  • Formation process of another hexagon-shaped CeO2 recorded in real time via in situ HRTEM (Video S2) (MP4)

  • In situ process showing how the CeO2 crystal is exfoliated layer-by-layer with atomic resolution (Video S3) (MP4)

  • In situ process showing how the notch forms in the CeO2 crystal with atomic resolution (Video S4) (MP4)

  • In situ process showing the nucleation and evolution of a hexagon-shaped nanovoid (Video S5) (MP4)

  • In situ process showing how the initial hexagon-shaped nanovoid formed channel by channel (Video S6) (MP4)

  • In situ process showing the nucleation and evolution of a tetragonal/hexagon-shaped nanovoid (Video S7) (MP4)

  • In situ process showing how the initial tetragonal nanovoid formed channel by channel (Video S8) (MP4)

  • Additional figures and videos showing the morphology evolution and dynamic irradiation processes of different CeO2 nanowires; STEM, TEM, and electron diffraction pattern of the as-prepared CeO2 nanowires; and analysis of the nanovoid displayed in Figure 4a (PDF)

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Cited By


This article is cited by 1 publications.

  1. Naif Mohammed Al-Hada, Rafiziana Md. Kasmani, Hairoladenan Kasim, Abbas M. Al-Ghaili, Muneer Aziz Saleh, Essam M. Banoqitah, Abdulsalam M. Alhawsawi, Anwar Ali Baqer, Jian Liu, Shicai Xu, Qiang Li, Azlan Muhammad Noorazlan, Abdullah A. A. Ahmed, Moayad Husein Flaifel, Suriati Paiman, Nazirul Nazrin, Bandar Ali Al-Asbahi, Jihua Wang. The Effect of Precursor Concentration on the Particle Size, Crystal Size, and Optical Energy Gap of CexSn1−xO2 Nanofabrication. Nanomaterials 2021, 11 (8) , 2143. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11082143