Enhanced Photocatalytic Performance of Carbon-Coated TiO2–x with Surface-Active Carbon Species

  • Fen Liu
    Fen Liu
    State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, National Center for Magnetic Resonance in Wuhan, Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance in Biological Systems, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071, P. R. China
    University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, P. R. China
    More by Fen Liu
  • Ningdong Feng*
    Ningdong Feng
    State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, National Center for Magnetic Resonance in Wuhan, Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance in Biological Systems, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071, P. R. China
    *E-mail: [email protected] (N.F.).
  • Longxiao Yang
    Longxiao Yang
    State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, National Center for Magnetic Resonance in Wuhan, Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance in Biological Systems, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071, P. R. China
    University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, P. R. China
  • Qiang Wang
    Qiang Wang
    State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, National Center for Magnetic Resonance in Wuhan, Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance in Biological Systems, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071, P. R. China
    More by Qiang Wang
  • Jun Xu
    Jun Xu
    State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, National Center for Magnetic Resonance in Wuhan, Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance in Biological Systems, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071, P. R. China
    More by Jun Xu
  • , and 
  • Feng Deng*
    Feng Deng
    State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, National Center for Magnetic Resonance in Wuhan, Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance in Biological Systems, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071, P. R. China
    *E-mail: [email protected]. Fax: +86-27-87199291 (F.D.).
    More by Feng Deng
Cite this: J. Phys. Chem. C 2018, 122, 20, 10948–10955
Publication Date (Web):May 2, 2018
https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpcc.8b02716
Copyright © 2018 American Chemical Society
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Abstract

Carbon (C) coating on the TiO2 surface has attracted extensive research interest due to the unique properties of the conjugated materials in electron transport and photoelectronic coupling ability. However, owing to the complexity of surface C species, there is no experimental study on their structure and property. Although the C-coated TiO2–x photocatalyst (C/TiO2–x) and its corresponding acid-washed sample (C*/TiO2–x) exhibit similar visible-light absorption, their catalytic activity is quite different. According to high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, electron spin resonance, and NMR results, the only structural difference between C/TiO2–x and C*/TiO2–x lies in the surface C species. Our NMR experimental results show that several C species (including alkoxy and carboxylate, and macromolecular graphitelike C) are present in C/TiO2–x, whereas only macromolecular graphitelike C exists in C*/TiO2–x. Combined with the photocatalytic activity measurements, it can be deduced that the surface graphitelike C should be the active C sites, which facilitate the separation of photoinduced electron and hole and lead to the exceptionally high photocatalytic activity for C*/TiO2–x, whereas the alkoxy and carboxylate C species that should be the recombination centers would poison seriously the surface of C/TiO2–x. Accordingly, the hole and electron transfer mechanism in the C-coated TiO2–x photocatalyst is proposed.

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The Supporting Information is available free of charge on the ACS Publications website at DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpcc.8b02716.

  • XRD spectra of pure TiO2, TiO2–x, C/TiO2–x, and C*/TiO2–x samples; HRTEM image, electron image, and EDS elemental mappings of C and Ti on the C/TiO2–x (PDF)

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