Surface-Induced Desolvation of Hydronium Ion Enables Anatase TiO2 as an Efficient Anode for Proton Batteries

  • Chao Geng
    Chao Geng
    College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Hainan University, Haikou 570228, China
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  • Tulai Sun
    Tulai Sun
    Center for Electron Microscopy, State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Green Chemistry Synthesis Technology and College of Chemical Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014, China
    More by Tulai Sun
  • Zhencui Wang
    Zhencui Wang
    College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Hainan University, Haikou 570228, China
    More by Zhencui Wang
  • Jin-Ming Wu*
    Jin-Ming Wu
    State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China
    *Email: [email protected]
    More by Jin-Ming Wu
  • Yi-Jie Gu
    Yi-Jie Gu
    College of Electronics and Information, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018, China
    More by Yi-Jie Gu
  • Hisayoshi Kobayashi*
    Hisayoshi Kobayashi
    Department of Chemistry and Materials Technology, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Kyoto 606-8585, Japan
    *Email: [email protected]
  • Peng Yang
    Peng Yang
    College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Hainan University, Haikou 570228, China
    More by Peng Yang
  • Jianhang Hai
    Jianhang Hai
    College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Hainan University, Haikou 570228, China
    More by Jianhang Hai
  • , and 
  • Wei Wen*
    Wei Wen
    College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Hainan University, Haikou 570228, China
    *Email: [email protected]
    More by Wei Wen
Cite this: Nano Lett. 2021, 21, 16, 7021–7029
Publication Date (Web):August 9, 2021
https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.1c02421
Copyright © 2021 American Chemical Society
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Abstract

Hydrogen ion is an attractive charge carrier for energy storage due to its smallest radius. However, hydrogen ions usually exist in the form of hydronium ion (H3O+) because of its high dehydration energy; the choice of electrode materials is thus greatly limited to open frameworks and layered structures with large ionic channels. Here, the desolvation of H3O+ is achieved by using anatase TiO2 as anodes, enabling the H+ intercalation with a strain-free characteristic. Density functional theory calculations show that the desolvation effects are dependent on the facets of anatase TiO2. Anatase TiO2 (001) surface, a highly reactive surface, impels the desolvation of H3O+ into H+. When coupled with a MnO2 cathode, the proton battery delivers a high specific energy of 143.2 Wh/kg at an ultrahigh specific power of 47.9 kW/kg. The modulation of the interactions between ions and electrodes opens new perspectives for battery optimizations.

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The Supporting Information is available free of charge at https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.nanolett.1c02421.

  • It includes experimental methods, XRD patterns, FESEM images, HRTEM images, FT-IR spectra, photograph, DFT calculation results, CV curves, galvanostatic charge/discharge profiles, charge/discharge cycling stability, Nyquist plot, HER/OER results, and the comparison for redox potentials of anode materials (PDF)

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