Surface-Induced Desolvation of Hydronium Ion Enables Anatase TiO2 as an Efficient Anode for Proton Batteries
- Chao GengChao GengCollege of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Hainan University, Haikou 570228, ChinaMore by Chao Geng,
- Tulai SunTulai SunCenter for Electron Microscopy, State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Green Chemistry Synthesis Technology and College of Chemical Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014, ChinaMore by Tulai Sun,
- Zhencui WangZhencui WangCollege of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Hainan University, Haikou 570228, ChinaMore by Zhencui Wang,
- Jin-Ming Wu* ,
- Yi-Jie GuYi-Jie GuCollege of Electronics and Information, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018, ChinaMore by Yi-Jie Gu,
- Hisayoshi Kobayashi* ,
- Peng YangPeng YangCollege of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Hainan University, Haikou 570228, ChinaMore by Peng Yang,
- Jianhang HaiJianhang HaiCollege of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Hainan University, Haikou 570228, ChinaMore by Jianhang Hai, and
- Wei Wen*
Hydrogen ion is an attractive charge carrier for energy storage due to its smallest radius. However, hydrogen ions usually exist in the form of hydronium ion (H3O+) because of its high dehydration energy; the choice of electrode materials is thus greatly limited to open frameworks and layered structures with large ionic channels. Here, the desolvation of H3O+ is achieved by using anatase TiO2 as anodes, enabling the H+ intercalation with a strain-free characteristic. Density functional theory calculations show that the desolvation effects are dependent on the facets of anatase TiO2. Anatase TiO2 (001) surface, a highly reactive surface, impels the desolvation of H3O+ into H+. When coupled with a MnO2 cathode, the proton battery delivers a high specific energy of 143.2 Wh/kg at an ultrahigh specific power of 47.9 kW/kg. The modulation of the interactions between ions and electrodes opens new perspectives for battery optimizations.
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