Surface De-Fluorination and Bond Modification of CFx by High-Density Hydrogen Plasma Processing

  • Guotao Chen
    Guotao Chen
    School of Materials and Energy, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 611731, China
    More by Guotao Chen
  • Haiping Zhou*
    Haiping Zhou
    School of Materials and Energy, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 611731, China
    Yangtze Delta Region Institute (Huzhou), University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Huzhou 313001, P. R. China
    *Email: [email protected]
    More by Haiping Zhou
  • Shu Zhang
    Shu Zhang
    School of Materials and Energy, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 611731, China
    Yangtze Delta Region Institute (Huzhou), University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Huzhou 313001, P. R. China
    More by Shu Zhang
  • Zidong Zhang
    Zidong Zhang
    School of Materials and Energy, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 611731, China
    More by Zidong Zhang
  • Tingting Feng
    Tingting Feng
    School of Materials and Energy, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 611731, China
    Yangtze Delta Region Institute (Huzhou), University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Huzhou 313001, P. R. China
  • Ziqiang Xu
    Ziqiang Xu
    School of Materials and Energy, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 611731, China
    Yangtze Delta Region Institute (Huzhou), University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Huzhou 313001, P. R. China
    More by Ziqiang Xu
  • , and 
  • Mengqiang Wu*
    Mengqiang Wu
    School of Materials and Energy, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 611731, China
    Yangtze Delta Region Institute (Huzhou), University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Huzhou 313001, P. R. China
    *Email: [email protected]
    More by Mengqiang Wu
Cite this: ACS Appl. Energy Mater. 2021, 4, 8, 8615–8620
Publication Date (Web):August 11, 2021
https://doi.org/10.1021/acsaem.1c01839
Copyright © 2021 American Chemical Society
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Abstract

The Li/CFx (lithium/fluorinated carbon) primary battery has attracted worldwide interest from the academic community and industry. However, Li/CFx batteries encounter the issue of poor rate capability because of the poor electronic conductivity of CFx due to the strong covalent C–F bond. Herein, we reported a vapor-phase method, namely, a low-temperature plasma technique, to modify the surface morphology, chemical components, and the microstructure of CFx. High-density hydrogen plasma processing partially de-fluorinated the CFx surface with a gradient fluorine content in the CFx powders and resulted in the increased ionic C–F bond simultaneously on the surface of CFx. As a result, both the specific capacity and rate performance of the Li/CFx primary battery were significantly improved due to the enhanced electron and Li+ transfer evidenced by the electrochemical tests. Different from the commonly used liquid-phase/solid-phase methods, no centrifugation, filtration, or washing processes were involved in this time-saving, eco-friendly, and facile plasma technique of the present plasma method.

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  • SEM images of untreated CFx and H–CFx, XPS results of untreated CFx and H–CFx, FTIR spectra for untreated CFx and H–CFx, and contact angles of the untreated CFx electrode and the H–CFx electrode (PDF)

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