High Catalytic Activity of Amorphous Ir-Pi for Oxygen Evolution Reaction

View Author Information
Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore-560012, India
*E-mail: [email protected]. Tel: +91-80-2293 3183.
Cite this: ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2015, 7, 29, 15765–15776
Publication Date (Web):July 1, 2015
Copyright © 2015 American Chemical Society
Article Views
Read OnlinePDF (6 MB)
Supporting Info (1)»


Large-scale production of hydrogen gas by water electrolysis is hindered by the sluggish kinetics of oxygen evolution reaction (OER) at the anode. The development of a highly active and stable catalyst for OER is a challenging task. Electrochemically prepared amorphous metal-based catalysts have gained wide attention after the recent discovery of a cobalt-phosphate (Co-Pi) catalyst. Herein, an amorphous iridium-phosphate (Ir-Pi) is investigated as an oxygen evolution catalyst. The catalyst is prepared by the anodic polarization of carbon paper electrodes in neutral phosphate buffer solutions containing IrCl3. The Ir-Pi film deposited on the substrate has significant amounts of phosphate and Ir centers in an oxidation state higher than +4. Phosphate plays a significant role in the deposition of the catalyst and also in its activity toward OER. The onset potential of OER on the Ir-Pi is about 150 mV lower in comparison with the Co-Pi under identical experimental conditions. Thus, Ir-Pi is a promising catalyst for electrochemical oxidation of water.

Supporting Information

Jump To

Cyclic voltammograms of the Ir-Pi electrodes before and after heat treatment (Figure S1), ECSA measurement (Figure S2), OER activity of the catalysts on FTO substrate (Figure S3), and SEM images after stability test (Figure S4). The Supporting Information is available free of charge on the ACS Publications website at DOI: 10.1021/acsami.5b02601.

Terms & Conditions

Most electronic Supporting Information files are available without a subscription to ACS Web Editions. Such files may be downloaded by article for research use (if there is a public use license linked to the relevant article, that license may permit other uses). Permission may be obtained from ACS for other uses through requests via the RightsLink permission system:

Cited By

This article is cited by 47 publications.

  1. Gihan Kwon, Seo Hyoung Chang, Jin Eun Heo, Kyeong Jun Lee, Jin-Kwang Kim, Byeong-Gwan Cho, Tae Yeong Koo, B. J. Kim, Chanseok Kim, Jun Hee Lee, Seong-Min Bak, Kevin A. Beyer, Hui Zhong, Robert J. Koch, Sooyeon Hwang, Lisa M. Utschig, Xiaojing Huang, Gongfang Hu, Gary W. Brudvig, David M. Tiede, Jungho Kim. Experimental Verification of Ir 5d Orbital States and Atomic Structures in Highly Active Amorphous Iridium Oxide Catalysts. ACS Catalysis 2021, 11 (15) , 10084-10094.
  2. Junjun Lv, Panpan Liu, Fei Yang, Liwen Xing, Danni Wang, Xiao Chen, Hongyi Gao, Xiubing Huang, Yunfeng Lu, Ge Wang. 3D Hydrangea Macrophylla-like Nickel–Vanadium Metal–Organic Frameworks Formed by Self-Assembly of Ultrathin 2D Nanosheets for Overall Water Splitting. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2020, 12 (43) , 48495-48510.
  3. Chao Feng, M. Bilal Faheem, Jie Fu, Yequan Xiao, Changli Li, Yanbo Li. Fe-Based Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Evolution Reaction: Progress and Perspectives. ACS Catalysis 2020, 10 (7) , 4019-4047.
  4. Xiuming Bu, ChaoLung Chiang, Renjie Wei, Zebiao Li, You Meng, ChunKuo Peng, YuChang Lin, Yangyang Li, YanGu Lin, Kwok Sum Chan, Johnny C. Ho. Two-Dimensional Cobalt Phosphate Hydroxide Nanosheets: A New Type of High-Performance Electrocatalysts with Intrinsic CoO6 Lattice Distortion for Water Oxidation. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2019, 11 (42) , 38633-38640.
  5. Ce Qiu, Lunhong Ai, Jing Jiang. Layered Phosphate-Incorporated Nickel–Cobalt Hydrosilicates for Highly Efficient Oxygen Evolution Electrocatalysis. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering 2018, 6 (4) , 4492-4498.
  6. Liqian Wu, Kaiyu Zhang, Tingting Wang, Xiaobing Xu, Yuqi Zhao, Yuan Sun, Wei Zhong, Youwei Du. Cobalt Sulfide Nanotubes (Co9S8) Decorated with Amorphous MoSx as Highly Efficient Hydrogen Evolution Electrocatalyst. ACS Applied Nano Materials 2018, 1 (3) , 1083-1093.
  7. Ahamed Irshad and Nookala Munichandraiah . Electrodeposited Nickel–Cobalt–Sulfide Catalyst for the Hydrogen Evolution Reaction. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2017, 9 (23) , 19746-19755.
  8. Nan Jiang, Zhiwei Zhu, Wenjie Xue, Bao Yu Xia, Bo You. Emerging Electrocatalysts for Water Oxidation under Near‐Neutral CO 2 Reduction Conditions. Advanced Materials 2021, , 2105852.
  9. KrishnaRao Eswar Neerugatti, Sangeeta Adhikari, Do-Heyoung Kim, Jaeyeong Heo. Eventual loss of phosphate and compensated passivation observed in CoPi thin films for efficient water oxidation in alkaline solutions. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 2021, 292 , 120192.
  10. Ghulam Yasin, Sehrish Ibrahim, Shumaila Ibraheem, Sajjad Ali, Rashid Iqbal, Anuj Kumar, Mohammad Tabish, Yassine Slimani, Tuan Anh Nguyen, Hu Xu, Wei Zhao. Defective/graphitic synergy in a heteroatom-interlinked-triggered metal-free electrocatalyst for high-performance rechargeable zinc–air batteries. Journal of Materials Chemistry A 2021, 9 (34) , 18222-18230.
  11. Guang Liu, Yun Wu, Rui Yao, Fei Zhao, Qiang Zhao, Jinping Li. Amorphous iron-nickel phosphide nanocone arrays as efficient bifunctional electrodes for overall water splitting. Green Energy & Environment 2021, 6 (4) , 496-505.
  12. Perumal Kannan, K.B. Akshaya, Y.N. Sudhakar, Ajesh Vijayan, Anitha Varghese. Amorphous Ru-Pi nanoclusters decorated on PEDOT modified carbon fibre paper as a highly efficient electrocatalyst for oxygen evolution reaction. Materials Chemistry and Physics 2021, 267 , 124650.
  13. Yiyue Zhai, Xiangrong Ren, Junqing Yan, Shengzhong (Frank) Liu. High Density and Unit Activity Integrated in Amorphous Catalysts for Electrochemical Water Splitting. Small Structures 2021, 2 (4) , 2000096.
  14. . Applications of Amorphous Nanomaterials in Electrocatalysis. 2021,,, 223-268.
  15. Yangbo Ma, Juan Wang, Jinli Yu, Jingwen Zhou, Xichen Zhou, Huangxu Li, Zhen He, Huiwu Long, Yunhao Wang, Pengyi Lu, Jinwen Yin, Hongyan Sun, Zhicheng Zhang, Zhanxi Fan. Surface modification of metal materials for high-performance electrocatalytic carbon dioxide reduction. Matter 2021, 4 (3) , 888-926.
  16. Agnus T. Mathew, Supriya S, Akshaya K. B., Anitha Varghese, Gurumurthy Hegde. An aqueous phase TEMPO mediated electrooxidation of 2-thiophenemethanol using MnO 2 –Pi dispersed nanocarbon spheres on a carbon fiber paper electrode. RSC Advances 2021, 11 (4) , 2000-2009.
  17. Y. Meng, G. Ni, X. Jin, J. Peng, Q.Y. Yan. Recent advances in the application of phosphates and borates as electrocatalysts for water oxidation. Materials Today Nano 2020, 12 , 100095.
  18. Yan Liu, Jifu Zhang, Wei Wang, Lixin Cao, Bohua Dong. Two‐Phase Colloidal Synthesis of Amorphous Iron‐Doped Manganese Phosphate Hollow Nanospheres for Efficient Water Oxidation. Advanced Sustainable Systems 2020, 4 (11) , 2000128.
  19. Changqin Zhang, Shuai Zhou, Xiaojun Dong, Yue Han, Jiahui Li, Wenzheng Yin. Three-dimensional self-supported iron-doped nickel sulfides for sustainable overall water splitting. Vacuum 2020, 181 , 109661.
  20. G. Givirovskiy, V. Ruuskanen, T. Väkiparta, J. Ahola. Electrocatalytic performance and cell voltage characteristics of 1st-row transition metal phosphate (TM-Pi) catalysts at neutral pH. Materials Today Energy 2020, 17 , 100426.
  21. Chao Li, Peng Diao. Boosting the Activity and Stability of Copper Tungsten Nanoflakes toward Solar Water Oxidation by Iridium-Cobalt Phosphates Modification. Catalysts 2020, 10 (8) , 913.
  22. Xiaorong Zhang, Yuewen Huo, Muhammad Shakeel, Baoshan Li, Lei Wang, Jianjun Liu, Shengli Zuo. Fabrication of BiOCl/ZnO/CN Nanocomposite for Visible‐Light Photocatalytic Degradation of Dyes. ChemistrySelect 2020, 5 (5) , 1640-1647.
  23. Nan Zang, Zexing Wu, Jie Wang, Wei Jin. Rational design of Cu–Co thiospinel ternary sheet arrays for highly efficient electrocatalytic water splitting. Journal of Materials Chemistry A 2020, 8 (4) , 1799-1807.
  24. Agnus T. Mathew, Supriya Hegde, K. B. Akshaya, Kannan P., Anitha Varghese, Gurumurthy Hegde. MnO 2 -Pi on Biomass Derived Porous Carbon for Electro-Catalytic Oxidation of Pyridyl Carbinol. Journal of The Electrochemical Society 2020, 167 (15) , 155513.
  25. Sengeni Anantharaj, Suguru Noda. Amorphous Catalysts and Electrochemical Water Splitting: An Untold Story of Harmony. Small 2020, 16 (2) , 1905779.
  26. Chwen-Haw Liao, Kun Fan, Song-Song Bao, Hao Fan, Xi-Zhang Wang, Zheng Hu, Mohamedally Kurmoo, Li-Min Zheng. From a layered iridium( iii )–cobalt( ii ) organophosphonate to an efficient oxygen-evolution-reaction electrocatalyst. Chemical Communications 2019, 55 (92) , 13920-13923.
  27. Guang Liu, Yun Wu, Muheng Wang, Rui Yao, Na Li, Yong Zhao, Fei Zhao, Jinping Li. Phosphate ions-functionalized and wettability-tuned nickel ferrite for boosted oxygen evolution performance. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 2019, 44 (49) , 26992-27000.
  28. Zhao-Qian Huang, Wen-Xiu Lu, Bin Wang, Wei-Jun Chen, Jie-Ling Xie, Dong-Sheng Pan, Ling-Li Zhou, Jun-Ling Song. A mesoporous C,N-co doped Co-based phosphate ultrathin nanosheet derived from a phosphonate-based-MOF as an efficient electrocatalyst for water oxidation. Catalysis Science & Technology 2019, 9 (17) , 4718-4724.
  29. Muhammad Shakeel, Xiaorong Zhang, Ghulam Yasin, Muhammad Arif, Zaheer Abbas, Umber Zaman, Baoshan Li. Fabrication of Amorphous BiOCl/TiO 2 ‐C 3 N 4 Heterostructure for Efficient Water Oxidation. ChemistrySelect 2019, 4 (28) , 8277-8282.
  30. Huaifang Zhang, Yao Wang, Binbin Zhang, Yawei Yan, Jie Xia, Xuejiang Liu, Xiaoyu Qiu, Yawen Tang. Construction of ultrasensitive ammonia sensor using ultrafine Ir decorated hollow graphene nanospheres. Electrochimica Acta 2019, 304 , 109-117.
  31. Minjie Xu, Chao Hu, Haiyan Xiang, Haozi Lu, Travis Shihao Hu, Bonian Hu, Song Liu, Gang Yu. Controllable phase transformation and improved thermal stability of nickel on tungsten substrate by electrodeposition. Journal of Materials Science & Technology 2019, 35 (5) , 727-732.
  32. Zhaoying Wang, Zheng Lin, Peng Diao. Hybrids of iridium–cobalt phosphates as a highly efficient electrocatalyst for the oxygen evolution reaction in neutral solution. Chemical Communications 2019, 55 (20) , 3000-3003.
  33. Peipei Li, Runbo Zhao, Hongyu Chen, Huanbo Wang, Peipei Wei, Hong Huang, Qian Liu, Tingshuai Li, Xifeng Shi, Youyu Zhang, Meiling Liu, Xuping Sun. Recent Advances in the Development of Water Oxidation Electrocatalysts at Mild pH. Small 2019, 15 (13) , 1805103.
  34. Zengbo Ke, Lejing Li, Qiurong Jia, Yangong Yang, Hongwei Cui. Facile synthesis of jagged Au/Ir nanochains with superior electrocatalytic activity for oxygen evolution reaction. Applied Surface Science 2019, 463 , 58-65.
  35. K.B. Akshaya, Anitha Varghese, Y.N. Sudhakar, Louis George. Electrocatalytic oxidation of morin on electrodeposited Ir-PEDOT nanograins. Food Chemistry 2019, 270 , 78-85.
  36. Akshaya K B, Anitha Varghese, Nidhin M, Louis George. Amorphous Ru-Pi Nanoclusters Coated on Polypyrrole Modified Carbon Fiber Paper for Non-Enzymatic Electrochemical Determination of Cholesterol. Journal of The Electrochemical Society 2019, 166 (12) , B1016-B1027.
  37. Ronghui Guo, Xiaoxu Lai, Jianwen Huang, Xinchuan Du, Yichao Yan, Yinghui Sun, Guifu Zou, Jie Xiong. Phosphate‐Based Electrocatalysts for Water Splitting: Recent Progress. ChemElectroChem 2018, 5 (24) , 3822-3834.
  38. Lisi Yin, Tao Yang, Xinran Ding, Maoshuai He, Wenxian Wei, Tingting Yu, Hong Zhao. Synthesis of phosphorus-iridium nanocrystals and their superior electrocatalytic activity for oxygen evolution reaction. Electrochemistry Communications 2018, 94 , 59-63.
  39. Guang Liu, Dongying He, Rui Yao, Yong Zhao, Jinping Li. Amorphous NiFeB nanoparticles realizing highly active and stable oxygen evolving reaction for water splitting. Nano Research 2018, 11 (3) , 1664-1675.
  40. Guang Liu, Dongying He, Rui Yao, Yong Zhao, Muheng Wang, Na Li, Jinping Li. Amorphous CoFeBO nanoparticles as highly active electrocatalysts for efficient water oxidation reaction. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 2018, 43 (12) , 6138-6149.
  41. Nandan S. Date, Amol M. Hengne, K.-W. Huang, Rajeev C. Chikate, Chandrashekhar V. Rode. Single pot selective hydrogenation of furfural to 2-methylfuran over carbon supported iridium catalysts. Green Chemistry 2018, 20 (9) , 2027-2037.
  42. K. B. Akshaya, T. P. Vinod, M. Nidhin, Anitha Varghese, Louis George. PEDOT Decorated with PtIr Nanoclusters on Carbon Fiber Paper toward Electrocatalytic Reduction of a Hypertensive Drug Olmesartan Medoxomil. Journal of The Electrochemical Society 2018, 165 (13) , B582-B595.
  43. Ahyoun Lim, Min Kyung Cho, So Young Lee, Hyoung-Juhn Kim, Sung Jong Yoo, Yung-Eun Sung, Jong Hyun Jang, Hyun S. Park. A Review of Industrially Developed Components and Operation Conditions for Anion Exchange Membrane Water Electrolysis. Journal of Electrochemical Science and Technology 2017, 8 (4) , 265-273.
  44. Ali Eftekhari. From pseudocapacitive redox to intermediary adsorption in oxygen evolution reaction. Materials Today Chemistry 2017, 4 , 117-132.
  45. Zhifan Chen, Hongbin Zhao, Jiujun Zhang, Jiaqiang Xu. IrNi nanoparticle-decorated flower-shaped NiCo2O4 nanostructures: controllable synthesis and enhanced electrochemical activity for oxygen evolution reaction. Science China Materials 2017, 60 (2) , 119-130.
  46. Ahamed Irshad, Nookala Munichandraiah. Ir-phosphate cocatalyst for photoelectrochemical water oxidation using α-Fe 2 O 3. RSC Advances 2017, 7 (35) , 21430-21438.
  47. Ahamed Irshad, Nookala Munichandraiah. Electrochemical deposition of manganese oxide–phosphate–reduced graphene oxide composite and electrocatalysis of the oxygen evolution reaction. RSC Advances 2016, 6 (36) , 30552-30563.