Native Oxide Transport and Removal During Atomic Layer Deposition of TiO2 Films on GaAs(100) Surfaces

View Author Information
Department of Physics, UMBC, Baltimore, Maryland 21250, United States
Cite this: ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2016, 8, 3, 1667–1675
Publication Date (Web):January 7, 2016
Copyright © 2016 American Chemical Society
Article Views
Read OnlinePDF (2 MB)


In this work, we studied the evolution and transport of the native oxides during the atomic layer deposition (ALD) of TiO2 on GaAs(100) from tetrakis dimethyl amino titanium and H2O. Arsenic oxide transport through the TiO2 film and removal during the ALD process was investigated using transmission Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Experiments were designed to decouple these processes by utilizing their temperature dependence. A 4 nm TiO2 layer was initially deposited on a native oxide surface at 100 °C. Ex situ XPS confirmed that this step disturbed the interface minimally. An additional 3 nm TiO2 film was subsequently deposited at 150 to 250 °C with and without an intermediate thermal treatment step at 250 °C. Arsenic and gallium oxide removal was confirmed during this second deposition, leading to the inevitable conclusion that these oxides traversed at least 4 nm of film so as to react with the precursor and its surface reaction/decomposition byproducts. XPS measurements confirmed the relocation of both arsenic and gallium oxides from the interface to the bulk of the TiO2 film under normal processing conditions. These results explain the continuous native oxide removal observed for alkyl-amine precursor-based ALD processes on III–V surfaces and provide further insight into the mechanisms of film growth.

Cited By

This article is cited by 14 publications.

  1. Theodosia Gougousi. Low-Temperature Dopant-Assisted Crystallization of HfO2 Thin Films. Crystal Growth & Design 2021, 21 (11) , 6411-6416.
  2. Herlys Viltres, Oscar F. Odio, Luis Lartundo-Rojas, Edilso Reguera. Degradation study of arsenic oxides under XPS measurements. Applied Surface Science 2020, 511 , 145606.
  3. Yunxia Zhou, Xingpeng Liu, Jun Zhu. Controlled high-quality interface of a Ti2.5O3(0 1 0)/GaAs(0 0 1) heterostructure enabled by minimized lattice mismatch and suppressed ion diffusion. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 2020, 560 , 769-776.
  4. Chaoran Jiang, Jiang Wu, Savio J. A. Moniz, Daqian Guo, Mingchu Tang, Qi Jiang, Siming Chen, Huiyun Liu, Aiqin Wang, Tao Zhang, Junwang Tang. Stabilization of GaAs photoanodes by in situ deposition of nickel-borate surface catalysts as hole trapping sites. Sustainable Energy & Fuels 2019, 3 (3) , 814-822.
  5. Die Wang, Gang He, Lin Hao, Juan Gao, Miao Zhang. Comparative passivation effect of ALD-driven HfO 2 and Al 2 O 3 buffer layers on the interface chemistry and electrical characteristics of Dy-based gate dielectrics. Journal of Materials Chemistry C 2019, 7 (7) , 1955-1965.
  6. Rainer Timm, Ashley R. Head, Sofie Yngman, Johan V. Knutsson, Martin Hjort, Sarah R. McKibbin, Andrea Troian, Olof Persson, Samuli Urpelainen, Jan Knudsen, Joachim Schnadt, Anders Mikkelsen. Self-cleaning and surface chemical reactions during hafnium dioxide atomic layer deposition on indium arsenide. Nature Communications 2018, 9 (1)
  7. Srikanta Palei, Bhaskar Parida, Keunjoo Kim. Oxidation behavior with quantum dots formation from amorphous GaAs thin films. Philosophical Magazine 2018, 98 (33) , 2965-2981.
  8. Lu Zhou, Baoxue Bo, Xingzhen Yan, Chao Wang, Yaodan Chi, Xiaotian Yang. Brief Review of Surface Passivation on III-V Semiconductor. Crystals 2018, 8 (5) , 226.
  9. Juan Gao, Gang He, Shuang Liang, Die Wang, Bing Yang. Comparative study on in situ surface cleaning effect of intrinsic oxide-covering GaAs surface using TMA precursor and Al 2 O 3 buffer layer for HfGdO gate dielectrics. Journal of Materials Chemistry C 2018, 6 (10) , 2546-2555.
  10. Xingpeng Liu, Jun Zhu, Zhipeng Wu. Epitaxial deposition of BaTiO 3 on TiO 2 buffered GaAs(001) substrate. Thin Solid Films 2017, 641 , 38-42.
  11. R. K. Choudhary, P. Sarkar, A. Biswas, P. Mishra, G. J. Abraham, P. U. Sastry, V. Kain. Structure, Morphology and Optical Properties of TiO2 Films Formed by Anodizing in a Mixed Solution of Citric Acid and Sulfamic Acid. Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance 2017, 26 (8) , 4001-4010.
  12. Theodosia Gougousi. Atomic layer deposition of high-k dielectrics on III–V semiconductor surfaces. Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials 2016, 62 (4) , 1-21.
  13. Dr. A.J. Henegar, Prof. T. Gougousi. Comparison of the reactivity of alkyl and alkyl amine precursors with native oxide GaAs(100) and InAs(100) surfaces. Applied Surface Science 2016, 390 , 870-881.
  14. Alex J. Henegar, Theodosia Gougousi. Native oxide transport and removal during the atomic layer deposition of Ta 2 O 5 on InAs(100) surfaces. Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A: Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films 2016, 34 (3) , 031101.