Layered P3-NaxCo1/3Ni1/3Mn1/3O2 versus Spinel Li4Ti5O12 as a Positive and a Negative Electrode in a Full Sodium–Lithium Cell

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Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry and Institute of Mineralogy and Crystallography, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria
§ Faculty of Chemistry and Pharmacy, Sofia University, 1164 Sofia, Bulgaria
*Phone: +359 2 9793915. Fax: +359 2 8705024. E-mail: [email protected]
Cite this: ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2016, 8, 27, 17321–17333
Publication Date (Web):June 17, 2016
Copyright © 2016 American Chemical Society
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The development of lithium and sodium ion batteries without using lithium and sodium metal as anodes gives the impetus for elaboration of low-cost and environmentally friendly energy storage devices. In this contribution we demonstrate the design and construction of a new type of hybrid sodium–lithium ion cell by using unique electrode combination (Li4Ti5O12 spinel as a negative electrode and layered Na3/4Co1/3Ni1/3Mn1/3O2 as a positive electrode) and conventional lithium electrolyte (LiPF6 salt dissolved in EC/DMC). The cell operates at an average potential of 2.35 V by delivering a reversible capacity of about 100 mAh/g. The mechanism of the electrochemical reaction in the full sodium–lithium ion cell is studied by means of postmortem analysis, as well as ex situ X-ray diffraction analysis, HR-TEM, and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR). The changes in the surface composition of electrodes are examined by ex situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).

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  • XRD patterns of Li4Ti5O12 spinel and P3–Na0.75Co1/3Ni1/3Mn1/3O2 (PDF)

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