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In Situ Hydrothermally Grown TiO2@C Core–Shell Nanowire Coating for Highly Sensitive Solid Phase Microextraction of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

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MOE Key Laboratory of Aquatic Product Safety/KLGHEI of Environment and Energy Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, P. R. China
*E-mail: [email protected]; Tel. & Fax: +86-20-84110845.
Cite this: ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2017, 9, 2, 1840–1846
Publication Date (Web):December 21, 2016
https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.6b14748
Copyright © 2016 American Chemical Society
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Abstract

Nanostructured materials have great potential for solid phase microextraction (SPME) on account of their tiny size, distinct architectures and superior physical and chemical properties. Herein, a core–shell TiO2@C fiber for SPME was successfully fabricated by the simple hydrothermal reaction of a titanium wire and subsequent amorphous carbon coating. The readily hydrothermal procedure afforded in situ synthesis of TiO2 nanowires on a titanium wire and provided a desirable substrate for further coating of amorphous carbon. Benefiting from the much larger surface area of subsequent TiO2 and good adsorption property of the amorphous carbon coating, the core–shell TiO2@C fiber was utilized for the SPME device for the first time and proved to have better performance in extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In comparison to the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and PDMS/divinylbenzene (DVB) fiber for commercial use, the TiO2@C fiber obtained gas chromatography responses 3–8 times higher than those obtained by the commercial 100 μm PDMS and 1–9 times higher than those obtained by the 65 μm PDMS/DVB fiber. Under the optimized extraction conditions, the low detection limits were obtained in the range of 0.4–7.1 ng L–1 with wider linearity in the range of 10–2000 ng L–1. Moreover, the fiber was successfully used for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Pearl River water, which demonstrated the applicability of the core–shell TiO2@C fiber.

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The Supporting Information is available free of charge on the ACS Publications website at DOI: 10.1021/acsami.6b14748.

  • Figure S1, low-magnification SEM image of the section of the TiO2 fiber; Figure S2, EDS line scan of the TiO2@C sample; Figure S3, EDS spectra of the TiO2@C sample; Figure S4, N2 adsorption–deposition isotherm of the amorphous carbon; Figure S5, The O 1s core level XPS spectrum of the TiO2@C sample; Figure S6, the chromatogram of TiO2 and TiO2@C fibers at the same condition; Figure S7, effects of SPME conditions on the extraction efficiencies of TiO2@C fiber; Table S1, comparison of LODs between the novel core–shell TiO2@C fiber and those from other works (PDF)

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