Present Perspectives of Advanced Characterization Techniques in TiO2-Based Photocatalysts

View Author Information
School of Physics and Technology, and MOE Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nanostructures, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China
§ College of Electronic Science and Technology, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, China
Laboratory for Quantum Engineering and Micro-Nano Energy Technology and Faculty of Materials and Optoelectronic Physics, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105, China
|| Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Monash University, Wellington Road, Clayton, Victoria 3800, Australia
*E-mail: [email protected] (Y.Z.).
*E-mail: [email protected] (X.Q.).
*E-mail: [email protected] (C.P.).
Cite this: ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2017, 9, 28, 23265–23286
Publication Date (Web):June 19, 2017
https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.7b00496
Copyright © 2017 American Chemical Society
Article Views
3127
Altmetric
-
Citations
LEARN ABOUT THESE METRICS
Read OnlinePDF (3 MB)

Abstract

TiO2 is the most investigated photocatalyst because of its nontoxicity, low cost, chemical stability, and strong photooxidative ability. Because of the morphology- and structure-dependent photocatalytic properties of TiO2, accurate characterization of the crystal and electronic structures of TiO2-based materials and their performance during the photocatalytic process is crucial not only for understanding the photocatalytic mechanism but also for providing experimental guidelines as well as a theoretical framework for the synthesis of high performance photocatalysts. In this review, we focused on the advanced characterization techniques that are utilized in the studies on the TiO2 structures and photocatalytic performance of TiO2 and TiO2-based materials. It is therefore anticipated that this review can provide a novel perspective to understand the fundamental aspects of photocatalysis and inspire the development of new photocatalysts with superior performances.

Cited By


This article is cited by 70 publications.

  1. Pan Wang, Hao Liu, Yixin Zong, Hongyu Wen, Jian-Bai Xia, Hai-Bin Wu. Two-Dimensional In2X2X′ (X and X′ = S, Se, and Te) Monolayers with an Intrinsic Electric Field for High-Performance Photocatalytic and Piezoelectric Applications. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2021, 13 (29) , 34178-34187. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c07096
  2. Yi Luo, Minglei Sun, Jin Yu, Udo Schwingenschlögl. Pd4S3Se3, Pd4S3Te3, and Pd4Se3Te3: Candidate Two-Dimensional Janus Materials for Photocatalytic Water Splitting. Chemistry of Materials 2021, 33 (11) , 4128-4134. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.chemmater.1c00812
  3. Vishnu V. Pillai, Sunil P. Lonkar, Saeed M. Alhassan. Template-Free, Solid-State Synthesis of Hierarchically Macroporous S-Doped TiO2 Nano-Photocatalysts for Efficient Water Remediation. ACS Omega 2020, 5 (14) , 7969-7978. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.9b04409
  4. Xiyan Liu, Tiejian Zhu, Yu Gong. Efficient Removal of Azo-Dyes in Aqueous Solution by CeB6 Nanocrystals. ACS Applied Nano Materials 2019, 2 (9) , 5704-5712. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsanm.9b01206
  5. Hui Qiao, Zongyu Huang, Shengqian Liu, Yue Tao, Hu Zhou, Mengyu Li, Xiang Qi. Novel Mixed-Dimensional Photocatalysts Based on 3D Graphene Aerogel Embedded with TiO2/MoS2 Hybrid. The Journal of Physical Chemistry C 2019, 123 (17) , 10949-10955. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpcc.9b00466
  6. Biyi Chen, Xue Chen, Ruoyuan Li, Weiqiang Fan, Fagen Wang, Baodong Mao, Weidong Shi. Flame Reduced TiO2 Nanorod Arrays with Ag Nanoparticle Decoration for Efficient Solar Water Splitting. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 2019, 58 (12) , 4818-4827. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.iecr.8b06171
  7. Wee-Jun Ong (Guest Editor). Learning from Natural Leaves: Going Green with Artificial Photosynthesis Forum. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2019, 11 (6) , 5579-5580. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.9b00245
  8. Ritu Malik, Vijay K. Tomer, Nirav Joshi, Torben Dankwort, Liwei Lin, Lorenz Kienle. Au–TiO2-Loaded Cubic g-C3N4 Nanohybrids for Photocatalytic and Volatile Organic Amine Sensing Applications. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2018, 10 (40) , 34087-34097. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.8b08091
  9. Dingze Lu, Huiqing Fan, Kiran Kumar Kondamareddy, Huawa Yu, Anxiang Wang, Hongjuan Hao, Min Li, Junwei Shen. Highly Efficient Visible-Light-Induced Photocatalytic Production of Hydrogen for Magnetically Retrievable [email protected]@MoS2/g-C3N4 Hierarchical Microspheres. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering 2018, 6 (8) , 9903-9911. https://doi.org/10.1021/acssuschemeng.8b01118
  10. Maria Vittoria Dozzi, Alessia Candeo, Gianluigi Marra, Cosimo D’Andrea, Gianluca Valentini, Elena Selli. Effects of Photodeposited Gold vs Platinum Nanoparticles on N,F-Doped TiO2 Photoactivity: A Time-Resolved Photoluminescence Investigation. The Journal of Physical Chemistry C 2018, 122 (26) , 14326-14335. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpcc.8b02997
  11. Xiaohui Ren, Fei Liu, Qi Wang, Hui Song, Shunqin Luo, Sijie Li, Gaoliang Yang, Bowen Deng, Zongyu Huang, Xu-Sheng Wang, Li Shi, Jinhua Ye. Engineering interfacial charge transfer channel for efficient photocatalytic H2 evolution: The interplay of CoPx and Ca2+ dopant. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 2022, 303 , 120887. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcatb.2021.120887
  12. Huilin Hou, Linli Xu, Weiyou Yang, Wai-Yeung Wong. Applications of 1D Mesoporous Inorganic Nanomaterials in Photocatalysis. 2022,,, 143-156. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-89105-3_8
  13. Longbo Jiang, Shaoyu Zhou, Jinjuan Yang, Hou Wang, Hanbo Yu, Haoyun Chen, Yanlan Zhao, Xingzhong Yuan, Wei Chu, Hui Li. Near‐Infrared Light Responsive TiO 2 for Efficient Solar Energy Utilization. Advanced Functional Materials 2021, 11 , 2108977. https://doi.org/10.1002/adfm.202108977
  14. Qingju Ning, Luyue Zhang, Changqing Liu, Xu Li, Chenggang Xu, Xianghui Hou. Boosting photogenerated carriers for organic pollutant degradation via in-situ constructing atom-to-atom TiO2/ZrTiO4 heterointerface. Ceramics International 2021, 47 (23) , 33298-33308. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ceramint.2021.08.232
  15. Jun Zhou, Xia Li, Xiaoming Ma, Wenlong Sheng, Xianjun Lang. Cooperative photocatalysis of dye-TiO2 nanotubes with TEMPO+BF4− for selective aerobic oxidation of amines driven by green light. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 2021, 296 , 120368. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcatb.2021.120368
  16. Saule Mergenbayeva, Timur Sh. Atabaev, Stavros G. Poulopoulos. Ti2O3/TiO2-Assisted Solar Photocatalytic Degradation of 4-tert-Butylphenol in Water. Catalysts 2021, 11 (11) , 1379. https://doi.org/10.3390/catal11111379
  17. Haiguang Zhu, Xun Yuan, Qiaofeng Yao, Jianping Xie. Shining photocatalysis by gold-based nanomaterials. Nano Energy 2021, 88 , 106306. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nanoen.2021.106306
  18. Long Wu, Yayuan Luo, Shuhong Zhou, Zhengqi Wu, Xiaoqiang Chen. Fabrication of Ag-TiO2 functionalized activated carbon for dyes degradation based on tea residues. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects 2021, 627 , 127130. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2021.127130
  19. Phuoc Loc Truong, Alemayehu Kidanemariam, Juhyun Park. A critical innovation of photocatalytic degradation for toxic chemicals and pathogens in air. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry 2021, 100 , 19-39. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jiec.2021.05.012
  20. B. Wang, Y. Zhou, Z. Huang, H. Qiao, C. Duan, X. Ren, Z. Wang, J. Zhong, X. Qi. Photoelectrochemical self-powered photodetector based on 2D liquid-exfoliated bismuth nanosheets: with novel structures for portability and flexibility. Materials Today Nano 2021, 14 , 100109. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mtnano.2021.100109
  21. Naresh Jada, Kamatchi Jothiramalingam Sankaran, Ramasamy Sakthivel, Diptipriya Sethi, Priyabrat Mohapatra. Synergistic effect of MoO3/TiO2 towards discrete and simultaneous photocatalytic degradation of E. coli and methylene blue in water. Bulletin of Materials Science 2021, 44 (2) https://doi.org/10.1007/s12034-021-02436-z
  22. Ayan Chen, Guanwen Chen, Yunyang Wang, Yun Lu, Jianxiong Chen, Jianyu Gong. Fabrication of novel Ag4Bi2O5-x towards excellent photocatalytic oxidation of gaseous toluene under visible light irradiation. Environmental Research 2021, 197 , 111130. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2021.111130
  23. Guofang Huang, Qiuyue Shen, Xiaoyu Ma, Junbo Zhong, Jiufu Chen, Jingwei Huang, Lei Wang, Houde She, Qizhao Wang. Preparation of an In 2 S 3 /TiO 2 Heterostructure for Enhanced Activity in Carbon Dioxide Photocatalytic Reduction. ChemPhotoChem 2021, 5 (5) , 438-444. https://doi.org/10.1002/cptc.202000295
  24. Priyanka Gupta, Mohammad Tabish Noori, Abraham Esteve Núñez, Nishith Verma. An insight into the bioelectrochemical photoreduction of CO2 to value-added chemicals. iScience 2021, 24 (4) , 102294. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2021.102294
  25. Mingjun Ma, Haiqing Wang, Hong Liu. Steering spatially separated dual sites on nano-TiO2 through SMSI and lattice matching for robust photocatalytic hydrogen evolution. Chinese Chemical Letters 2021, 7 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2021.04.012
  26. Jianqiang Luo, Wanwen Zhang, Hongbin Yang, Qiangwen Fan, Fengqiang Xiong, Shujuan Liu, Dong‐Sheng Li, Bin Liu. Halide perovskite composites for photocatalysis: A mini review. EcoMat 2021, 3 (1) https://doi.org/10.1002/eom2.12079
  27. Jing-Zhou Wang, Zhong-Shu Zhou, Yong-Jie Dai, Jian-Ping Zhou, Xiao-Gong Lv. Charge transfer in SnS 2 /Na 0.9 Mg 0.45 Ti 3.55 O 8 heterojunction in photocatalytic process. Nanotechnology 2021, 32 (2) , 025712. https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/abba9a
  28. Xiaohui Ren, Davin Philo, Yunxiang Li, Li Shi, Kun Chang, Jinhua Ye. Recent advances of low-dimensional phosphorus-based nanomaterials for solar-driven photocatalytic reactions. Coordination Chemistry Reviews 2020, 424 , 213516. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ccr.2020.213516
  29. Libin Zeng, Xinyong Li, Shiying Fan, Zhifan Yin, Jincheng Mu, Meichun Qin, Aicheng Chen. Solar-driven bio-electro-chemical system for synergistic hydrogen evolution and pollutant elimination simultaneously over defect-rich CoN–MoS2/biomass nanosheets. Journal of Power Sources 2020, 478 , 228755. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2020.228755
  30. Shuai Xiao, Qian Fu, Yanan Zou, Kerui Xiong, Jun Li, Qiang Liao, Liang Zhang, Xun Zhu. Solar fuel production from CO2 reduction in a self-biased hybrid solar-microbial device. Applied Energy 2020, 279 , 115821. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2020.115821
  31. Qiang Wang, Lingxia Zhang, Yangkun Guo, Meng Shen, Min Wang, Bing Li, Jianlin Shi. Multifunctional 2D porous g-C3N4 nanosheets hybridized with 3D hierarchical TiO2 microflowers for selective dye adsorption, antibiotic degradation and CO2 reduction. Chemical Engineering Journal 2020, 396 , 125347. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2020.125347
  32. N. Mohd Yusoff, C.A.C. Abdullah, M.A.W. Abdul Hadi, E.K. Ng, H.K. Lee, N.H. Zainol Abidin, N.S. Rosli, M.A. Mahdi. Low threshold Q-switched fiber laser incorporating titanium dioxide saturable absorber from waste material. Optik 2020, 218 , 164998. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijleo.2020.164998
  33. Jaspal Singh, Sanjeev Kumar, Rishikesh, Ashis K. Manna, R.K. Soni. Fabrication of ZnO–TiO2 nanohybrids for rapid sunlight driven photodegradation of textile dyes and antibiotic residue molecules. Optical Materials 2020, 107 , 110138. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.optmat.2020.110138
  34. Maria Dozzi, Elena Selli. Surface Aspects of Semiconductor Photochemistry. Surfaces 2020, 3 (3) , 467-472. https://doi.org/10.3390/surfaces3030033
  35. Jiyun Zhang, Yanyan Song, Xianhui Dong, Haoyang Jiang, Jianguo Tang, Haidong Li. Umbrella-like CdS single crystal: exposed (002) facets and enhanced photocatalytic properties. Journal of Materials Science 2020, 55 (25) , 11167-11176. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-020-04770-9
  36. Rashmi Acharya, Kulamani Parida. A review on TiO2/g-C3N4 visible-light- responsive photocatalysts for sustainable energy generation and environmental remediation. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering 2020, 8 (4) , 103896. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jece.2020.103896
  37. Huilin Hou, Gang Shao, Weiyou Yang, Wai-Yeung Wong. One-dimensional mesoporous inorganic nanostructures and their applications in energy, sensor, catalysis and adsorption. Progress in Materials Science 2020, 113 , 100671. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmatsci.2020.100671
  38. Munawar Khalil, Reza Imam Pratama, Muhammad Sujak, Alexander Garry, Dede Djuhana, Aminah Umar, Chin Wei Lai, Badrul Mohamed Jan. Dependence of the photocatalytic reduction of bicarbonate to formic acid by Au–TiO2 on Au morphology and its plasmonic vibrational mode. Materials Chemistry and Physics 2020, 249 , 123018. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matchemphys.2020.123018
  39. Zhu-Lin Niu, Sha-Sha Yi, Chuan-Qi Li, Yan Liu, Qing-Qing Pang, Zhong-Yi Liu, Xin-Zheng Yue. Supporting bimetallic sulfide on 3D TiO2 hollow shells to boost photocatalytic activity. Chemical Engineering Journal 2020, 390 , 124602. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2020.124602
  40. Edward Suhendra, Chih-Hua Chang, Wen-Che Hou, Yi-Chin Hsieh. A Review on the Environmental Fate Models for Predicting the Distribution of Engineered Nanomaterials in Surface Waters. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 2020, 21 (12) , 4554. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21124554
  41. Chan Xu, Pengfei Zhao, Miao Cai, Zhigang Dan, Shi Zeng, Jianghui Du, Piaoyun Yang, Juan Xiong. Enhanced photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI) by Cu2O/Bi5O7I microrods composites under visible light. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry 2020, 395 , 112495. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotochem.2020.112495
  42. Jiaoyu Xiao, Ju Cheng, Jun Su, Jiamu Huang, Hongdong Liu. Photocatalytic Activity Studies of La-Doped TiO2 Thin Films Prepared by Magnetron Sputtering. Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance 2020, 29 (5) , 3152-3160. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11665-020-04823-9
  43. Marco Cazzaniga, Marco Micciarelli, Francesco Moriggi, Agnes Mahmoud, Fabio Gabas, Michele Ceotto. Anharmonic calculations of vibrational spectra for molecular adsorbates: A divide-and-conquer semiclassical molecular dynamics approach. The Journal of Chemical Physics 2020, 152 (10) , 104104. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5142682
  44. Qiao Chen, DeLiang Liu, Binhua Cao, Zhijun Wang, Tinglan Wang, Boyou Wang, Ziyi Wang, Yuxiao Yang, Xiaobo Xiong, Yongqian Wang. Enhanced Photodegradation Activity of Organic Pollutants Contained in Sewage Through Construction of a CuO/Ag Composite Nanostructure. Journal of Electronic Materials 2020, 49 (3) , 2032-2039. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11664-019-07882-4
  45. Aleksandra B. Djurišić, Yanling He, Alan M. C. Ng. Visible-light photocatalysts: Prospects and challenges. APL Materials 2020, 8 (3) , 030903. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5140497
  46. Caiyun Liu, Junyi Hu, Weiming Liu, Feng Zhu, Guo Wang, Chen‐Ho Tung, Yifeng Wang. Binding Modes of Salicylic Acids to Titanium Oxide Molecular Surfaces. Chemistry – A European Journal 2020, 26 (12) , 2666-2674. https://doi.org/10.1002/chem.201904302
  47. Abbas Sadeghzadeh-Attar. Photocatalytic degradation evaluation of N-Fe codoped aligned TiO2 nanorods based on the effect of annealing temperature. Journal of Advanced Ceramics 2020, 9 (1) , 107-122. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40145-019-0353-1
  48. Qianyuan Chen, Zhongchi Wang, Keqiang Chen, Qiang Fu, Yueli Liu, Yupeng Zhang, Delong Li, Chunxu Pan. TiO 2 /graphene/CuSbS 2 mixed-dimensional array with high-performance photoelectrochemical properties. RSC Advances 2019, 9 (58) , 33747-33754. https://doi.org/10.1039/C9RA07237C
  49. Anil A. Kashale, Akash S. Rasal, Gokul P. Kamble, Vijay H. Ingole, Pravin K. Dwivedi, Swapnil J. Rajoba, Lata D. Jadhav, Yong-Chien Ling, Jia-Yaw Chang, Anil V. Ghule. Biosynthesized Co-doped TiO2 nanoparticles based anode for lithium-ion battery application and investigating the influence of dopant concentrations on its performance. Composites Part B: Engineering 2019, 167 , 44-50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesb.2018.12.001
  50. Xiangxin Xue, Lei Chen, Cuimei Zhao, Hairui Wang, Ping Nie, Limin Chang. Role of surface ligands on CdSe/CdS QDs in affecting the charge separation and photocatalytic behavior in reducing the graphene oxide. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics 2019, 30 (10) , 9363-9371. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10854-019-01266-4
  51. Yinling Cai, Min Zhang, Teng Miao, Jingli Xu, Jing Zheng, Abdullah M. Asiri, Khalid A. Alamry. Magnetically separable Ag NWs/Fe 3 O 4 @mTiO 2 nanowires: fabrication and photocatalytic activity. Micro & Nano Letters 2019, 14 (5) , 577-580. https://doi.org/10.1049/mnl.2018.5123
  52. Liu Yang, Chan Xu, Fangcheng Wan, Haohan He, Haoshuang Gu, Juan Xiong. Synthesis of RGO/BiOI/ZnO composites with efficient photocatalytic reduction of aqueous Cr(VI) under visible-light irradiation. Materials Research Bulletin 2019, 112 , 154-158. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.materresbull.2018.12.019
  53. Yijie Ren, Deqian Zeng, Wee-Jun Ong. Interfacial engineering of graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4)-based metal sulfide heterojunction photocatalysts for energy conversion: A review. Chinese Journal of Catalysis 2019, 40 (3) , 289-319. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1872-2067(19)63293-6
  54. Edoardo Magnone, Min-Kwang Kim, Hong Joo Lee, Jung Hoon Park. Testing and substantial improvement of TiO2/UV photocatalysts in the degradation of Methylene Blue. Ceramics International 2019, 45 (3) , 3359-3367. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ceramint.2018.10.249
  55. Maryam Salimi, Mohammad Behbahani, Hamid Reza Sobhi, Mitra Gholami, Ahmad Jonidi Jafari, Roshanak Rezaei Kalantary, Mahdi Farzadkia, Ali Esrafili. A new nano-photocatalyst based on Pt and Bi co-doped TiO 2 for efficient visible-light photo degradation of amoxicillin. New Journal of Chemistry 2019, 43 (3) , 1562-1568. https://doi.org/10.1039/C8NJ05020A
  56. Duong Van Hau, Dang Thi Thanh Nhan, Nguyen Van Duc, Vu Phi Tuyen, Thanh-Dinh Nguyen, Tran Thai Hoa, Nguyen Duc Cuong. Structural Design of Near-Infrared Light-Active Cu/TiO2/NaYF4:Yb,Er Nanocomposite Photocatalysts. Journal of Electronic Materials 2019, 48 (1) , 329-336. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11664-018-6717-4
  57. Yiwei Hu, Xinhang Chen, Xiaohui Ren, Zongyu Huang, Xiang Qi, Jianxin Zhong. Facile hydrothermally synthesis of hexagon tin disulfide nanosheets for high-performance photocatalytic hydrogen generation. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics 2018, 29 (23) , 19614-19619. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10854-018-0164-0
  58. Zhongchi Wang, Chengzhi Luo, Yupeng Zhang, Youning Gong, Jun Wu, Qiang Fu, Chunxu Pan. Construction of hierarchical TiO2 nanorod array/graphene/ZnO nanocomposites for high-performance photocatalysis. Journal of Materials Science 2018, 53 (22) , 15376-15389. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-018-2724-3
  59. Qian Fu, Shuai Xiao, Zhuo Li, Yanbo Li, Hajime Kobayashi, Jun Li, Yang Yang, Qiang Liao, Xun Zhu, Xuefeng He, Dingding Ye, Liang Zhang, Miao Zhong. Hybrid solar-to-methane conversion system with a Faradaic efficiency of up to 96%. Nano Energy 2018, 53 , 232-239. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nanoen.2018.08.051
  60. Dingze Lu, Qiuping Wang, Kiran Kumar Kondamareddy, Anxiang Wang, Hongjuan Hao, Qiong Wu. Efficiently visible-light-induced photoactivity of MoS 2 nanoflowers/chromic oxide/protonated titanate nanoflakes edge-on ternary heterostructures for production of hydrogen. Journal of Alloys and Compounds 2018, 761 , 31-40. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2018.05.149
  61. Guo Zhou, Haiyan Meng, Yan Cao, Xuejun Kou, Shuxiang Duan, Leilei Fan, Ming Xiao, Fangzhou Zhou, Zhenzi Li, Zipeng Xing. Surface plasmon resonance-enhanced solar-driven photocatalytic performance from Ag nanoparticles-decorated Ti3+ self-doped porous black TiO2 pillars. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry 2018, 64 , 188-193. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jiec.2018.03.015
  62. V. Lionas, T. Georgakopoulos, N. Todorova, S. Karapati, K. Pomoni, C. Trapalis. Electron transport in surface modified TiO2 nanoparticles. Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing 2018, 83 , 63-69. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mssp.2018.04.012
  63. Huogen Yu, Wenjing Liu, Xuefei Wang, Fazhou Wang. Promoting the interfacial H2-evolution reaction of metallic Ag by Ag2S cocatalyst: A case study of TiO2/Ag-Ag2S photocatalyst. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 2018, 225 , 415-423. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.12.026
  64. Maochang Liu, Fei Xue, Xixi Wang, Wenlong Fu, Yi Wang, Youjun Lu, Naixu Li. Conformal deposition of atomic TiO2 layer on chalcogenide nanorod with excellent activity and durability towards solar H2 generation. Chemical Engineering Journal 2018, 341 , 335-343. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2018.02.031
  65. Zhiwei Chen, Chang Feng, Weibing Li, Zhiyong Sun, Jian Hou, Xiangbo Li, Likun Xu, Mingxian Sun, Yuyu Bu. Enhanced visible-light-driven photocatalytic activities of 0D/1D heterojunction carbon quantum dot modified CdS nanowires. Chinese Journal of Catalysis 2018, 39 (4) , 841-848. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1872-2067(17)62972-3
  66. Shuhua Liu, Zongyu Huang, Xiaohui Ren, Xinhang Chen, Hui Qiao, Pinghua Tang, Xiang Qi. P25/Black phosphorus/Graphene hybrid for enhanced photocatalytic activity. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics 2018, 29 (6) , 4441-4448. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10854-017-8391-3
  67. Yong-Jun Yuan, Daqin Chen, Zhen-Tao Yu, Zhi-Gang Zou. Cadmium sulfide-based nanomaterials for photocatalytic hydrogen production. Journal of Materials Chemistry A 2018, 6 (25) , 11606-11630. https://doi.org/10.1039/C8TA00671G
  68. Rashmi Acharya, Brundabana Naik, Kulamani Parida. Cr(VI) remediation from aqueous environment through modified-TiO 2 -mediated photocatalytic reduction. Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology 2018, 9 , 1448-1470. https://doi.org/10.3762/bjnano.9.137
  69. Yiwei Hu, Xiaohui Ren, Hui Qiao, Zongyu Huang, Xiang Qi, Jianxin Zhong. Exploring co-catalytic graphene frameworks for improving photocatalytic activity of Tin disulfide nanoplates. Solar Energy 2017, 157 , 905-910. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solener.2017.08.082
  70. Matteo Monai, Tiziano Montini, Paolo Fornasiero. Brookite: Nothing New under the Sun?. Catalysts 2017, 7 (10) , 304. https://doi.org/10.3390/catal7100304