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Preparation of a New Type of Black TiO2 under a Vacuum Atmosphere for Sunlight Photocatalysis

  • Reza Katal
    Reza Katal
    Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117576, Singapore
    More by Reza Katal
  • Mojtaba Salehi
    Mojtaba Salehi
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117575, Singapore
  • Mohammad Hossein Davood Abadi Farahani
    Mohammad Hossein Davood Abadi Farahani
    Department of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117585, Singapore
  • Saeid Masudy-Panah
    Saeid Masudy-Panah
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 119260, Singapore
  • Say Leong Ong
    Say Leong Ong
    Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117576, Singapore
  • , and 
  • Jiangyong Hu*
    Jiangyong Hu
    Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117576, Singapore
    *E-mail: [email protected]. Phone/Fax: (+65) 6516 4540.
    More by Jiangyong Hu
Cite this: ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2018, 10, 41, 35316–35326
Publication Date (Web):September 18, 2018
https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.8b14680
Copyright © 2018 American Chemical Society
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Abstract

Black TiO2 as a solar-driven photocatalyst has attracted enormous attention from scientists and engineers in water and wastewater treatment field. Most of the methods used for the preparation of black TiO2 are thermal treatment under a hydrogen atmosphere. Nevertheless, it is well known that working with hydrogen is not safe and needs special maintenance. Here, for the first time, we prepared black TiO2 by sintering P25 pellets at different temperatures (500–800 °C) under a vacuum atmosphere that showed the same performance with the prepared black TiO2 under a hydrogen atmosphere. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectra field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and ultraviolet–visible deep resistivity sounding techniques. The differences between the formation of oxygen vacancy density and color turning in sintered powder and pellet were also studied. The results showed that the color of the P25 powder became darker after sintering but not completely turning to black, whereas the P25 pellets completely turned black after sintering. The resultant black TiO2 was used for the photocatalytic degradation of the acetaminophen (ACE) in aqueous solution under AM 1.5G solar light illumination; it was found that the P25 pellet sintered in 500 °C had the highest photocatalytic performance for ACE degradation under AM 1.5G solar light illumination. The photocatalytic activity of prepared black TiO2 under vacuum and hydrogen atmospheres was also compared together; the results showed that photocatalytic activities of both samples were so close together. The existence of the oxygen vacancy after 6 months and long and short-term stability (by application for photocatalytic degradation of ACE in an aqueous solution) of the black TiO2 pellets was also studied; the results showed that the TiO2 pellets in aqueous phase had acceptable stability.

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The Supporting Information is available free of charge on the ACS Publications website at DOI: 10.1021/acsami.8b14680.

  • XRD patterns of the BT500 and Sin-500; image of P25, P25 powder sintered at 500 °C, and BT500; VB of P25 and black TiO2 samples; mechanisms of generating oxygen vacancies by thermal treatments under hydrogen or vacuum conditions; relative intensity of fluorescence at 426 nm for different samples under AM 1.5G solar light irradiation for 4 h; images of HBT500 (black TiO2 prepared under a hydrogen atmosphere, hydrogen flow: 100 mL min–1, for 3 h at 500 °C) and BT500 (black TiO2 prepared under a vacuum atmosphere, 3 h, 500 °C); apparent rate constants (kapp) of ACE by BT500 and HBT500 under AM 1.5G solar light illumination; images of BT500 after five time application and before application; and photocatalytic degradation efficiency of ACE by BT500 and HBT500 under AM 1.5G solar light illumination at different cycles (PDF)

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