SnO2–x Nanoparticles Decorated on Graphitic Carbon Nitride as S-Scheme Photocatalysts for Activation of Peroxymonosulfate

  • Dai-Phat Bui
    Dai-Phat Bui
    Faculty of Materials Science and Technology, University of Science, VNU-HCM, 227 Nguyen Van Cu Street, District 5, Ho Chi Minh City 700000, Vietnam
    Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh City, Thu Duc District, Ho Chi Minh City 700000, Vietnam
    More by Dai-Phat Bui
  • Thanh-Dat Nguyen
    Thanh-Dat Nguyen
    Faculty of Materials Science and Technology, University of Science, VNU-HCM, 227 Nguyen Van Cu Street, District 5, Ho Chi Minh City 700000, Vietnam
    Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh City, Thu Duc District, Ho Chi Minh City 700000, Vietnam
  • Thi Thuy Le Vo
    Thi Thuy Le Vo
    Faculty of Environment, Natural Resources and Climate Change, Ho Chi Minh City University of Food Industry (HUFI), 140 Le Trong Tan Street, Tay Thanh Ward, Tan Phu District, Ho Chi Minh City 700000, Vietnam
  • Thi Minh Cao
    Thi Minh Cao
    Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology (HUTECH), 475A Dien Bien Phu Street, Binh Thanh District, Ho Chi Minh City 700000, Vietnam
    More by Thi Minh Cao
  • Sheng-Jie You
    Sheng-Jie You
    Department of Environmental Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li 320, Taiwan
    Research and Development Center for Membrane Technology, Chung-Li 320, Taiwan
  • , and 
  • Viet Van Pham*
    Viet Van Pham
    Faculty of Materials Science and Technology, University of Science, VNU-HCM, 227 Nguyen Van Cu Street, District 5, Ho Chi Minh City 700000, Vietnam
    Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh City, Thu Duc District, Ho Chi Minh City 700000, Vietnam
    *Email: [email protected]
Cite this: ACS Appl. Nano Mater. 2021, 4, 9, 9333–9343
Publication Date (Web):August 30, 2021
https://doi.org/10.1021/acsanm.1c01801
Copyright © 2021 American Chemical Society
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Abstract

Designing a heterojunction that can effectively degrade pollutants under different reaction conditions remains a challenge and question. Herein, an S-scheme model of oxygen-vacancies-defected tin dioxide nanoparticles and graphitic carbon nitride (SnO2–x/g-C3N4) is fabricated. This is also the first study activating photocatalysts by potassium peroxymonosulfate (PMS) for degrading rhodamine B (RhB) dye. Empirical evidence, including X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), show the presence and a combination of SnO2–x nanoparticles and g-C3N4 nanosheets. Optical, electrochemical analysis, and trapping experiments reveal the contribution of different charge states of oxygen vacancies, a visible light responsibility of 3.2 eV, and an S-scheme charge transfer to the strengthened photocatalytic performance of SnO2–x/g-C3N4. Besides, an S-scheme is accelerated to higher performance from 20% to 99.8% RhB 20 mg L–1 degradation via activating PMS in solution. This design and activation may promise applications in efficient water treatment.

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  • Schematic illustration of energy band alignments of SnO2–x and g-C3N4 for before and after contact; photocatalytic degradation of RhB 20 mg L– over SnO2–x, g-C3N4, SnO2/g-C3N4, and S-CN composite without PMS; effect of molar concentration of PMS of 15% SCN versus visible light irradiation time ([RhB]0 = 200 mg L–1, [catalyst]0 = 0.33 g L–1); photocatalytic efficiency of 20 mg L–1 p-NP, MB, and MO with PMS within 180 min under visible light illumination; ([Dye] = 20 mg L–1, [PMS] = 0.1 mM; XRD patterns of 15% S-CN sample before and after five cycles (PDF)

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