Revealing the Mechanical Bending Mechanisms of Single-Crystalline Rutile TiO2 Nanowires Near Room Temperature: Implications for Nanostructured Semiconductors

  • Qiong Liu*
    Qiong Liu
    School of Mechanical, Medical and Process Engineering, Queensland University of Technology (QUT), Brisbane, Queensland 4001, Australia
    *Email: [email protected]
    More by Qiong Liu
  • Arixin Bo
    Arixin Bo
    INM − Leibniz Institute for New Materials, Saarbrücken 66123, Germany
    More by Arixin Bo
  • Haifei Zhan
    Haifei Zhan
    School of Mechanical, Medical and Process Engineering, Queensland University of Technology (QUT), Brisbane, Queensland 4001, Australia
    Department of Civil Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China
    More by Haifei Zhan
  • Liangzhi Kou
    Liangzhi Kou
    School of Mechanical, Medical and Process Engineering, Queensland University of Technology (QUT), Brisbane, Queensland 4001, Australia
    More by Liangzhi Kou
  • , and 
  • Yuantong Gu*
    Yuantong Gu
    School of Mechanical, Medical and Process Engineering, Queensland University of Technology (QUT), Brisbane, Queensland 4001, Australia
    Center for Materials Science, Queensland University of Technology (QUT), Brisbane, Queensland 4001, Australia
    *Email: [email protected]
    More by Yuantong Gu
Cite this: ACS Appl. Nano Mater. 2021, 4, 10, 10354–10359
Publication Date (Web):September 22, 2021
https://doi.org/10.1021/acsanm.1c01864
Copyright © 2021 American Chemical Society
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Abstract

Understanding the deformation mechanisms of rutile titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanowires (NWs) helps to improve the working reliability of TiO2-based nanoelectrical–mechanical systems and better apply strain engineering to these materials. This work investigated the bending deformation mechanisms at the atomic scale using in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) near room temperature. Large bending strains of 3.0% to 5.1% could be observed on individual TiO2 NWs near room temperature. The large bending deformation was attributed to the formation of rich stacking faults (SFs) lying on (101̅) planes and the nucleation and glide of extended dislocations belonging to the {101̅}⟨101⟩ slip system.

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The Supporting Information is available free of charge at https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acsanm.1c01864.

  • Movie of in situ TEM bending test of a rutile TiO2 nanowire (MP4)

  • Figures of TEM images, schematic of calculating the maximum bending strain, and summary of the fracture strains (PDF)

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