Undiscovered Multiple Roles of Multivalent Cations in the Pollutant Removal from Actual Water by Persulfate Activated by Carbon Materials

  • Han-Chao Zhang
    Han-Chao Zhang
    CAS Key Laboratory of Urban Pollutant Conversion, Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, China
  • Jiang-Jin Han
    Jiang-Jin Han
    CAS Key Laboratory of Urban Pollutant Conversion, Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, China
  • Xin Zhang
    Xin Zhang
    CAS Key Laboratory of Urban Pollutant Conversion, Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, China
    More by Xin Zhang
  • Pu-Can Guo
    Pu-Can Guo
    CAS Key Laboratory of Urban Pollutant Conversion, Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, China
    More by Pu-Can Guo
  • Dong-Hua Xie
    Dong-Hua Xie
    CAS Key Laboratory of Urban Pollutant Conversion, Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, China
    More by Dong-Hua Xie
  • , and 
  • Guo-Ping Sheng*
    Guo-Ping Sheng
    CAS Key Laboratory of Urban Pollutant Conversion, Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, China
    *Fax: +86-551-63607453. E-mail: [email protected]
Cite this: ACS EST Engg. 2021, 1, 8, 1227–1235
Publication Date (Web):June 13, 2021
https://doi.org/10.1021/acsestengg.1c00121
Copyright © 2021 American Chemical Society
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Abstract

Enormous works have focused on the influence of natural organic matter (NOM) and anions (e.g., Cl and HCO3) on the pollutant removal efficiency by persulfate activation technologies. However, the impact of multivalent cations in actual water, e.g., Ca2+, on the pollutant removal has been overlooked in past research. In this work, we surprisingly found that pollutant degradation by the carbon materials activating persulfate in some actual water (e.g., groundwater) was higher than that in the buffer solution, and the bridging effect of multivalent cations in the actual water was the main reason. Through the bridging effect of multivalent cations, persulfate was bound on the surface of carbon materials to accelerate its decomposition. However, the promotion mechanism of multivalent cations on the radical and nonradical pathways of persulfate activation was different. Furthermore, the NOM aggregation was also promoted by multivalent cations, thereby inhibiting its quenching effect on the pollutant degradation. Besides that, these multivalent cations could lead to the coagulation of carbon materials, which was harmful for its catalytic performance. This work highlights the multiple roles of multivalent cations in the actual water in the persulfate activated by the carbon material process, and it was conducive to the practical application of Fenton-like technologies in actual water treatment.

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  • Effect of Ca2+ on various pollutant degradations, ζ potentials, hydrodynamic sizes, characteristics of four actual water samples, HPLC test conditions, element contents, multivalent cation concentrations, pH values in the four actual water samples before and after CER treatment (PDF)

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