RETURN TO ISSUEPREVResearch ArticleNEXT

Interfacial Construction of Zero-Dimensional/One-Dimensional g-C3N4 Nanoparticles/TiO2 Nanotube Arrays with Z-Scheme Heterostructure for Improved Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting

  • Limin Xiao
    Limin Xiao
    National and Local Joint Engineering Research Center for Applied Technology of Hybrid Nanomaterials, Engineering Research Center for Nanomaterials, Henan University, Kaifeng, 475004, China
    More by Limin Xiao
  • Taifeng Liu
    Taifeng Liu
    National and Local Joint Engineering Research Center for Applied Technology of Hybrid Nanomaterials, Engineering Research Center for Nanomaterials, Henan University, Kaifeng, 475004, China
    More by Taifeng Liu
  • Min Zhang*
    Min Zhang
    National and Local Joint Engineering Research Center for Applied Technology of Hybrid Nanomaterials, Engineering Research Center for Nanomaterials, Henan University, Kaifeng, 475004, China
    *E-mail: [email protected]
    More by Min Zhang
  • Qiuye Li*
    Qiuye Li
    National and Local Joint Engineering Research Center for Applied Technology of Hybrid Nanomaterials, Engineering Research Center for Nanomaterials, Henan University, Kaifeng, 475004, China
    *E-mail: [email protected]
    More by Qiuye Li
  • , and 
  • Jianjun Yang*
    Jianjun Yang
    National and Local Joint Engineering Research Center for Applied Technology of Hybrid Nanomaterials, Engineering Research Center for Nanomaterials, Henan University, Kaifeng, 475004, China
    *E-mail: [email protected]
    More by Jianjun Yang
Cite this: ACS Sustainable Chem. Eng. 2019, 7, 2, 2483–2491
Publication Date (Web):December 20, 2018
https://doi.org/10.1021/acssuschemeng.8b05392
Copyright © 2018 American Chemical Society
Article Views
1553
Altmetric
-
Citations
LEARN ABOUT THESE METRICS
Read OnlinePDF (5 MB)
Supporting Info (1)»

Abstract

The 0D/1D graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4)/TiO2 heterostructures containing an interfacial oxygen vacancy layer were sequentially constructed by anodic oxidation, NaBH4 reduction, and vapor deposition methods. Visible light absorption was significantly improved via construction of the interfacial oxygen vacancy layer and coupling with g-C3N4. Thus, 0D/1D g-C3N4/OV-TiO2 showed an optimal photocurrent density as high as 0.72 mA/cm2 at 1.23 V versus reversible hydrogen electrode under visible light irradiation, 8-fold higher than the data of g-C3N4/TiO2 without interfacial oxygen vacancy layer. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) revealed the 0D/1D g-C3N4/OV-TiO2 heterostructured photoanode showed the lowest charge transfer resistance among all the prepared photoanodes. This improved photoelectrochemical (PEC) performance could be attributed to the generation of Z-scheme heterostructure via construction of an interfacial oxygen vacancy layer between TiO2 and g-C3N4. This interfacial layer can promote charge carrier separation and transportation processes. The formation of this Z-scheme heterostructure was confirmed by hydroxyl fluorescence capture characterization and spin-polarized density functional theory calculations. We believe that our work can help rationally design and construct highly efficient heterostructured photoanodes for PEC water splitting applications.

Supporting Information

ARTICLE SECTIONS
Jump To

The Supporting Information is available free of charge on the ACS Publications website at DOI: 10.1021/acssuschemeng.8b05392.

  • Experimental section, characterization, photoelectrochemical measurements, photocatalytic degradation experiments, DFT calculations, and additonal figures (PDF)

Terms & Conditions

Most electronic Supporting Information files are available without a subscription to ACS Web Editions. Such files may be downloaded by article for research use (if there is a public use license linked to the relevant article, that license may permit other uses). Permission may be obtained from ACS for other uses through requests via the RightsLink permission system: http://pubs.acs.org/page/copyright/permissions.html.

Cited By


This article is cited by 56 publications.

  1. Liqun Wang, Wenping Si, Yuhang Ye, Sihui Wang, Feng Hou, Xinggang Hou, Hongkun Cai, Shi Xue Dou, Ji Liang. Cu-Ion-Implanted and Polymeric Carbon Nitride-Decorated TiO2 Nanotube Array for Unassisted Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2021, 13 (37) , 44184-44194. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c09665
  2. Haijiao Lu, Julie Tournet, Kamran Dastafkan, Yun Liu, Yun Hau Ng, Siva Krishna Karuturi, Chuan Zhao, Zongyou Yin. Noble-Metal-Free Multicomponent Nanointegration for Sustainable Energy Conversion. Chemical Reviews 2021, 121 (17) , 10271-10366. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.chemrev.0c01328
  3. Jinfeng Liu, Ping Wang, Jiajie Fan, Huogen Yu, Jiaguo Yu. In Situ Synthesis of Mo2C Nanoparticles on Graphene Nanosheets for Enhanced Photocatalytic H2-Production Activity of TiO2. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering 2021, 9 (10) , 3828-3837. https://doi.org/10.1021/acssuschemeng.0c08903
  4. Shuo Zhao, Jiasheng Fang, Yanyun Wang, Yiwei Zhang, Yuming Zhou. Poly(ionic liquid)-Assisted Synthesis of Open-Ended Carbon Nitride Tube for Efficient Photocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution under Visible-Light Irradiation. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering 2019, 7 (11) , 10095-10104. https://doi.org/10.1021/acssuschemeng.9b01544
  5. Xinwei Li, Haiwei Li, Yu Huang, Junji Cao, Tingting Huang, Rong Li, Qian Zhang, Shun-cheng Lee, Wingkei Ho. Exploring the photocatalytic conversion mechanism of gaseous formaldehyde degradation on TiO2–-OV surface. Journal of Hazardous Materials 2022, 424 , 127217. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.127217
  6. Xiao Qu, Chuntao Chen, Jianbin Lin, Wei Qiang, Lei Zhang, Dongping Sun. Engineered defect-rich TiO2/g-C3N4 heterojunction: A visible light-driven photocatalyst for efficient degradation of phenolic wastewater. Chemosphere 2022, 286 , 131696. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.131696
  7. Xuelan Hou, Zheng Li, Lijun Fan, Jiashu Yuan, Peter D. Lund, Yongdan Li. Effect of Ti foil size on the micro sizes of anodic TiO2 nanotube array and photoelectrochemical water splitting performance. Chemical Engineering Journal 2021, 425 , 131415. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2021.131415
  8. Wei Zheng, Shuyi Zhang. The role of graphitic C3N4 in improving the photovoltaic performance of CdS quantum dots sensitized solar cells. Inorganic Chemistry Communications 2021, 133 , 108919. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.inoche.2021.108919
  9. Xuqiang Hao, Dingzhou Xiang, Zhiliang Jin. Zn‐Vacancy Engineered S‐Scheme ZnCdS/ZnS Photocatalyst for Highly Efficient Photocatalytic H 2 Evolution. ChemCatChem 2021, 209 https://doi.org/10.1002/cctc.202100994
  10. Bo Jiang, Hui Huang, Wenbin Gong, Xiaoqing Gu, Ting Liu, Junchang Zhang, Wei Qin, Hui Chen, Yongcan Jin, Zhiqiang Liang, Lin Jiang. Wood‐Inspired Binder Enabled Vertical 3D Printing of g‐C 3 N 4 /CNT Arrays for Highly Efficient Photoelectrochemical Hydrogen Evolution. Advanced Functional Materials 2021, 29 , 2105045. https://doi.org/10.1002/adfm.202105045
  11. S. Vinoth, A. Pandikumar. Ni integrated S-gC3N4/BiOBr based Type-II heterojunction as a durable catalyst for photoelectrochemical water splitting. Renewable Energy 2021, 173 , 507-519. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2021.03.121
  12. Xuan Li, Corrado Garlisi, Qiangshun Guan, Shoaib Anwer, Khalid Al-Ali, Giovanni Palmisano, Lianxi Zheng. A review of material aspects in developing direct Z-scheme photocatalysts. Materials Today 2021, 47 , 75-107. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mattod.2021.02.017
  13. S. Vinoth, Wee-Jun Ong, A. Pandikumar. Sulfur-doped graphitic carbon nitride incorporated bismuth oxychloride/Cobalt based type-II heterojunction as a highly stable material for photoelectrochemical water splitting. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 2021, 591 , 85-95. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2021.01.104
  14. Giovanni Di Liberto, Sergio Tosoni, Gianfranco Pacchioni. Z-Scheme versus type-II junction in g-C 3 N 4 /TiO 2 and g-C 3 N 4 /SrTiO 3 /TiO 2 heterostructures. Catalysis Science & Technology 2021, 11 (10) , 3589-3598. https://doi.org/10.1039/D1CY00451D
  15. Yansong Wu, Wei Ding, Jian Li, . Fabrication of Hierarchical Nanocomposites through a Nature-Mimic Method: Depositing MoS2 Nanoparticles on Carbon Nitride Nanotubes by Polydopamine Coating. Journal of Nanomaterials 2021, 2021 , 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/6668393
  16. Bhagyashree Priyadarshini Mishra, Kulamani Parida. Orienting Z scheme charge transfer in graphitic carbon nitride-based systems for photocatalytic energy and environmental applications. Journal of Materials Chemistry A 2021, 9 (16) , 10039-10080. https://doi.org/10.1039/D1TA00704A
  17. Bangqi Wei, Chan Wang, Yimin He, Guoxia Ran, Qijun Song. A novel [email protected] composite with enhanced photo-Fenton catalytic activity for pollutant degradation. Composites Communications 2021, 24 , 100652. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coco.2021.100652
  18. Duoduo Gao, Xinhe Wu, Ping Wang, Huogen Yu, Bicheng Zhu, Jiajie Fan, Jiaguo Yu. Selenium-enriched amorphous NiSe1+ nanoclusters as a highly efficient cocatalyst for photocatalytic H2 evolution. Chemical Engineering Journal 2021, 408 , 127230. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2020.127230
  19. Guoqing Zhao, Jun Hu, Jiao Zou, Jingang Yu, Feipeng Jiao, Xiaoqing Chen. The construction of NiFeS x /g-C 3 N 4 composites with high photocatalytic activity towards the degradation of refractory pollutants. Dalton Transactions 2021, 50 (7) , 2436-2447. https://doi.org/10.1039/D0DT04096G
  20. Yong Kang, Zhengjun Li, Yanli Yang, Zhiguo Su, Xiaoyuan Ji, Songping Zhang. Antimonene Nanosheets‐Based Z‐Scheme Heterostructure with Enhanced Reactive Oxygen Species Generation and Photothermal Conversion Efficiency for Photonic Therapy of Cancer. Advanced Healthcare Materials 2021, 10 (3) , 2001835. https://doi.org/10.1002/adhm.202001835
  21. Umair Baig, Abuzar Khan, M.A. Gondal, M.A. Dastageer, Sultan Akhtar. Single-step synthesis of silicon carbide anchored graphitic carbon nitride nanocomposite photo-catalyst for efficient photoelectrochemical water splitting under visible-light irradiation. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects 2021, 611 , 125886. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2020.125886
  22. Shuobo Wang, Xu Han, Yihe Zhang, Na Tian, Tianyi Ma, Hongwei Huang. Inside‐and‐Out Semiconductor Engineering for CO 2 Photoreduction: From Recent Advances to New Trends. Small Structures 2021, 2 (1) , 2000061. https://doi.org/10.1002/sstr.202000061
  23. Min Wang, Jingjing Cheng, Xuefei Wang, Xuekun Hong, Jiajie Fan, Huogen Yu. Sulfur-mediated photodeposition synthesis of NiS cocatalyst for boosting H2-evolution performance of g-C3N4 photocatalyst. Chinese Journal of Catalysis 2021, 42 (1) , 37-45. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1872-2067(20)63633-6
  24. Wei Zhong, Xinhe Wu, Yongping Liu, Xuefei Wang, Jiajie Fan, Huogen Yu. Simultaneous realization of sulfur-rich surface and amorphous nanocluster of NiS1+ cocatalyst for efficient photocatalytic H2 evolution. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 2021, 280 , 119455. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcatb.2020.119455
  25. Dong Qiu, Chengli He, Yuxuan Lu, Qiaodan Li, Yang Chen, Xiaoli Cui. Assembling γ-graphyne surrounding TiO 2 nanotube arrays: an efficient p–n heterojunction for boosting photoelectrochemical water splitting. Dalton Transactions 2021, 3 https://doi.org/10.1039/D1DT01810H
  26. Pei Ning, Huayu Chen, Jianhui Pan, Junhui Liang, Laishun Qin, Da Chen, Yuexiang Huang. Surface defect-rich g-C 3 N 4 /TiO 2 Z-scheme heterojunction for efficient photocatalytic antibiotic removal: rational regulation of free radicals and photocatalytic mechanism. Catalysis Science & Technology 2020, 10 (24) , 8295-8304. https://doi.org/10.1039/D0CY01564D
  27. Ying Tian, Wenhua Tang, Hui Xiong, Tanghan Chen, Bingpeng Li, Xufeng Jing, Junjie Zhang, Shiqing Xu. Luminescence and structure regulation of graphitic carbon nitride by electron rich P ions doping. Journal of Luminescence 2020, 228 , 117616. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jlumin.2020.117616
  28. Jiachao Xu, Wei Zhong, Huogen Yu, Xuekun Hong, Jiajie Fan, Jiaguo Yu. Triethanolamine-assisted photodeposition of non-crystalline Cu x P nanodots for boosting photocatalytic H 2 evolution of TiO 2. Journal of Materials Chemistry C 2020, 8 (44) , 15816-15822. https://doi.org/10.1039/D0TC03641B
  29. Bianhong Li, Shaofeng Wu, Xiangsheng Gao. Theoretical calculation of a TiO 2 -based photocatalyst in the field of water splitting: A review. Nanotechnology Reviews 2020, 9 (1) , 1080-1103. https://doi.org/10.1515/ntrev-2020-0085
  30. Si Zhang, Hejie Zheng, Yuping Sun, Fen Li, Tongtong Li, Xiaoqiang Liu, Yanmei Zhou, Weiwei Chen, Huangxian Ju. Oxygen vacancies enhanced photoelectrochemical aptasensing of 2, 3', 5, 5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl amplified with Ag3VO4 nanoparticle-TiO2 nanotube array heterostructure. Biosensors and Bioelectronics 2020, 167 , 112477. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2020.112477
  31. Deepti Chaudhary, Sunil Kumar, Neeraj Khare. Boosting the visible-light photoelectrochemical performance of C3N4 by coupling with TiO2 and carbon nanotubes: An organic/inorganic hybrid photocatalyst nanocomposite for photoelectrochemical water spitting. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 2020, 45 (55) , 30091-30100. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2020.08.059
  32. Xingyue Zou, Zhuxing Sun, Yun Hang Hu. g-C 3 N 4 -based photoelectrodes for photoelectrochemical water splitting: a review. Journal of Materials Chemistry A 2020, 8 (41) , 21474-21502. https://doi.org/10.1039/D0TA07345H
  33. Yajun Pang, Hao Chen, Jin Yang, Bo Wang, Zhenyu Yang, Jun Lv, Zhenghui Pan, Guangqing Xu, Zhehong Shen, Yucheng Wu. Rational Regulation of Surface Free Radicals on TiO2 Nanotube Arrays via Ag2O–AgBiO3 towards Enhanced Selective Photoelectrochemical Detection. Nanomaterials 2020, 10 (10) , 2002. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10102002
  34. Xinhe Wu, Haiqin Ma, Wei Zhong, Jiajie Fan, Huogen Yu. Porous crystalline g-C3N4: Bifunctional NaHCO3 template-mediated synthesis and improved photocatalytic H2-evolution rate. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 2020, 271 , 118899. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcatb.2020.118899
  35. Kelei Huang, Chunhu Li, Xiuli Zhang, Xiangchao Meng, Liang Wang, Wentai Wang, Zizhen Li. TiO2 nanorod arrays decorated by nitrogen-doped carbon and g-C3N4 with enhanced photoelectrocatalytic activity. Applied Surface Science 2020, 518 , 146219. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2020.146219
  36. Preeti Chaudhary, Pravin Popinand Ingole. In-Situ solid-state synthesis of 2D/2D interface between Ni/NiO hexagonal nanosheets supported on g-C3N4 for enhanced photo-electrochemical water splitting. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 2020, 45 (32) , 16060-16070. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2020.04.011
  37. Edmund Samuel, Bhavana Joshi, Min-Woo Kim, Mark T. Swihart, Sam S. Yoon. Morphology engineering of photoelectrodes for efficient photoelectrochemical water splitting. Nano Energy 2020, 72 , 104648. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nanoen.2020.104648
  38. Liqun Wang, Wenping Si, Yueyu Tong, Feng Hou, Daniele Pergolesi, Jungang Hou, Thomas Lippert, Shi Xue Dou, Ji Liang. Graphitic carbon nitride (g‐C 3 N 4 )‐based nanosized heteroarrays: Promising materials for photoelectrochemical water splitting. Carbon Energy 2020, 2 (2) , 223-250. https://doi.org/10.1002/cey2.48
  39. Shun Wang, Fengang Zheng, Yuyan Weng, Guoliang Yuan, Liang Fang, Lu You. Enhanced Photoelectrochemical Performance by Interface Engineering in Ternary g‐C 3 N 4 /TiO 2 /PbTiO 3 Films. Advanced Materials Interfaces 2020, 7 (10) , 2000185. https://doi.org/10.1002/admi.202000185
  40. Haitao Li, Ping Wang, Xiaoqing Yi, Huogen Yu. Edge-selectively amidated graphene for boosting H2-evolution activity of TiO2 photocatalyst. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 2020, 264 , 118504. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcatb.2019.118504
  41. Huihui Zhu, Xiaoju Yang, Min Zhang, Qiuye Li, Jianjun Yang. Construction of 2D/2D TiO2/g-C3N4 nanosheet heterostructures with improved photocatalytic activity. Materials Research Bulletin 2020, 125 , 110765. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.materresbull.2019.110765
  42. Dantong Zhou, Bobo Yu, Qiulin Chen, Hang Shi, Yixi Zhang, Dongxiang Li, Xiuru Yang, Wan Zhao, Chunxi Liu, Guoying Wei, Zhi Chen. Improved visible light photocatalytic activity on Z-scheme g-C3N4 decorated TiO2 nanotube arrays by a simple impregnation method. Materials Research Bulletin 2020, 124 , 110757. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.materresbull.2019.110757
  43. Fan Qi, Weijia An, Huan Wang, Jinshan Hu, Hongxia Guo, Li Liu, Wenquan Cui. Combing oxygen vacancies on TiO2 nanorod arrays with g-C3N4 nanosheets for enhancing photoelectrochemical degradation of phenol. Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing 2020, 109 , 104954. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mssp.2020.104954
  44. Kamel Eid, Khaled A. Soliman, Dana Abdulmalik, Dariusz Mitoraj, Mostafa H. Sleim, Maciej O. Liedke, Hany A. El-Sayed, Amina S. AlJaber, Ilham Y. Al-Qaradawi, Oliver Mendoza Reyes, Aboubakr M. Abdullah. Tailored fabrication of iridium nanoparticle-sensitized titanium oxynitride nanotubes for solar-driven water splitting: experimental insights on the photocatalytic–activity–defects relationship. Catalysis Science & Technology 2020, 10 (3) , 801-809. https://doi.org/10.1039/C9CY02366F
  45. Swetha S. M. Bhat, Sang Eon Jun, Sol A Lee, Tae Hyung Lee, Ho Won Jang. Influence of C3N4 Precursors on Photoelectrochemical Behavior of TiO2/C3N4 Photoanode for Solar Water Oxidation. Energies 2020, 13 (4) , 974. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13040974
  46. Chao Pan, Meitong Ou, Qinzhen Cheng, Yun Zhou, Yongkang Yu, Zimu Li, Fan Zhang, Dehua Xia, Lin Mei, Xiaoyuan Ji. Z‐Scheme Heterojunction Functionalized Pyrite Nanosheets for Modulating Tumor Microenvironment and Strengthening Photo/Chemodynamic Therapeutic Effects. Advanced Functional Materials 2020, 30 (3) , 1906466. https://doi.org/10.1002/adfm.201906466
  47. Duoduo Gao, Wenjing Liu, Ying Xu, Ping Wang, Jiajie Fan, Huogen Yu. Core-shell [email protected] cocatalyst on the TiO2 photocatalyst: One-step photoinduced deposition and its improved H2-evolution activity. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 2020, 260 , 118190. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcatb.2019.118190
  48. Lei Yang, Yu Bao, Chaoqian Li, Yajuan Zhang, luyao Zhao, Zixiu Wang, Yiwen Sun, Minghuang Lin. Influence of annealing temperature on photoelectronic properties and wettability of TiO 2 nanotube arrays. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering 2020, 711 , 012077. https://doi.org/10.1088/1757-899X/711/1/012077
  49. Hassan Bashir, Nguyen Thi Minh Tam, Shenglian Luo. Graphitic Carbon Nitride Nanorods Modified TiO 2 Nanotube Arrays with Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity for Phenol Degradation. Environmental Engineering Science 2020, 37 (1) , 13-21. https://doi.org/10.1089/ees.2019.0288
  50. Ravi Tejasvi, Suddhasatwa Basu. Formation of C3N4 thin films through the stoichiometric transfer of the bulk synthesized gC3N4 using RFM sputtering. Vacuum 2020, 171 , 108937. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vacuum.2019.108937
  51. Fei Li, Bo Dong, Shenglei Feng. Bi shell-BiOI core microspheres modified TiO2 nanotube arrays photoanode: Improved effect of Bi shell on photoelectrochemical hydrogen evolution in seawater. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 2019, 44 (57) , 29986-29999. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2019.09.210
  52. Marian Sima, Eugeniu Vasile, Adrian Sima, Nicoleta Preda, Constantin Logofatu. Graphitic carbon nitride based photoanodes prepared by spray coating method. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 2019, 44 (45) , 24430-24440. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2019.07.243
  53. Dongfang Hou, Fan Tang, Bingbing Ma, Min Deng, Xiu-qing Qiao, Dong-Sheng Li. Exploring improvement of photocatalytic and catalytic performance in Nd-doped BiYO3 nanotube systems. Inorganic Chemistry Communications 2019, 106 , 151-157. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.inoche.2019.06.008
  54. Dao Phuong Trang Duong, Thuan Doan Van, Phat Bui Dai, Thao Nhi Nguyen Tran, Thai Ngoc Uyen Nguyen, Thi Cao Minh, Tri Khoa Nguyen, Yong-Soo Kim, Viet Pham Van. Excellent visible light-driven photocatalytic performance and band alignment of g-C 3 N 4 /TiO 2 nanotube heterostructures. Materials Research Express 2019, 6 (8) , 085061. https://doi.org/10.1088/2053-1591/ab2021
  55. Jing Wu, Yujie Feng, Da Li, Xiaoyu Han, Jia Liu. Efficient photocatalytic CO2 reduction by P–O linked g-C3N4/TiO2-nanotubes Z-scheme composites. Energy 2019, 178 , 168-175. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2019.04.168
  56. Kamel Eid, Mostafa H. Sliem, Aboubakr M. Abdullah. Unraveling template-free fabrication of carbon nitride nanorods codoped with Pt and Pd for efficient electrochemical and photoelectrochemical carbon monoxide oxidation at room temperature. Nanoscale 2019, 11 (24) , 11755-11764. https://doi.org/10.1039/C9NR02571E