Human-Hair-Derived N, S-Doped Porous Carbon: An Enrichment and Degradation System for Wastewater Remediation in the Presence of Peroxymonosulfate

  • Wenjie Ma
    Wenjie Ma
    MIIT Key Laboratory of Critical Materials Technology for New Energy Conversion and Storage, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, No. 92 West Dazhi Street, Harbin 150001, China
    More by Wenjie Ma
  • Na Wang
    Na Wang
    MIIT Key Laboratory of Critical Materials Technology for New Energy Conversion and Storage, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, No. 92 West Dazhi Street, Harbin 150001, China
    More by Na Wang
  • Yunchen Du*
    Yunchen Du
    MIIT Key Laboratory of Critical Materials Technology for New Energy Conversion and Storage, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, No. 92 West Dazhi Street, Harbin 150001, China
    *E-mail: [email protected] (Y. Du). Tel: +86-(451)-86418750. Fax: +86-(451)-86413702.
    More by Yunchen Du
  • Ping Xu
    Ping Xu
    MIIT Key Laboratory of Critical Materials Technology for New Energy Conversion and Storage, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, No. 92 West Dazhi Street, Harbin 150001, China
    More by Ping Xu
  • Bojing Sun
    Bojing Sun
    MIIT Key Laboratory of Critical Materials Technology for New Energy Conversion and Storage, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, No. 92 West Dazhi Street, Harbin 150001, China
    More by Bojing Sun
  • Leijiang Zhang
    Leijiang Zhang
    MIIT Key Laboratory of Critical Materials Technology for New Energy Conversion and Storage, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, No. 92 West Dazhi Street, Harbin 150001, China
  • , and 
  • Kun-Yi Andrew Lin
    Kun-Yi Andrew Lin
    Department of Environmental Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, No. 250 Kuo-Kuang Road, Taichung 402, Taiwan
Cite this: ACS Sustainable Chem. Eng. 2019, 7, 2, 2718–2727
Publication Date (Web):December 27, 2018
Copyright © 2018 American Chemical Society
Article Views
Read OnlinePDF (4 MB)
Supporting Info (1)»


Biomass is a promising raw material for synthesizing heteroatom-doped carbon due to its cheap cost and easy availability. Herein, we fabricate nitrogen and sulfur codoped carbon (NSC) with extremely high specific surface areas (BET surface areas of 3015 m2/g) by employing human hair as the precursor. The graphitization degree, N/S doping content, and pore structures of NSC can be easily modulated by the heat treatment conditions. Besides, NSC obtained at 800 °C (NSC-800) even outperforms most traditional metal-based catalysts under the same conditions for BPA degradation. Influences of various operating parameters (NSC, Oxone, and BPA concentration) and the inorganic salts/humic acid (HA) on BPA degradation are comprehensively studied. Furthermore, quenching experiments and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements prove that 1O2 should be the main active species generated from PMS activation, and the contribution of •OH/SO4•– is very limited. This work is expected to arouse more interests about biomass-derived carbon for PMS activation and environmental remediation.

Supporting Information

Jump To

The Supporting Information is available free of charge on the ACS Publications website at DOI: 10.1021/acssuschemeng.8b05801.

  • Chemical reagents and materials (Section 1); characterization (Section 2); XRD patterns of NSC-700, NSC-800, and NSC-900 (Figure S1); SEM images of NSC-700 and NSC-900 (Figure S2); TEM images of NSC-700 and NSC-900 (Figure S3); adsorption isotherm fitting results of NSC-X with two adsorption models (Figure S4); FTIR spectra of NSC-800 after adsorption and after reaction (Figure S5); XRD patterns of commercial Fe3O4, commercial MnO2, homemade CuO, and homemade Co3O4 (Figure S6); degradation of BPA by some metal oxides and N-doped carbon (Figure S7); degradation of BPA, phenol, TC, and MB by NSC-800/PMS (Figure S8); adsorption isotherm models fitting results of NSC-X (Table S1); comparison of BPA degradation by some reported materials (Table S2) (PDF)

Terms & Conditions

Most electronic Supporting Information files are available without a subscription to ACS Web Editions. Such files may be downloaded by article for research use (if there is a public use license linked to the relevant article, that license may permit other uses). Permission may be obtained from ACS for other uses through requests via the RightsLink permission system:

Cited By

This article is cited by 60 publications.

  1. Xintong Li, Jun Wang, Xiaoguang Duan, Yang Li, Xiaobin Fan, Guoliang Zhang, Fengbao Zhang, Wenchao Peng. Fine-Tuning Radical/Nonradical Pathways on Graphene by Porous Engineering and Doping Strategies. ACS Catalysis 2021, 11 (8) , 4848-4861.
  2. Ming Zhang, Chengming Xiao, Chi Zhang, Junwen Qi, Chaohai Wang, Xiuyun Sun, Lianjun Wang, Qiang Xu, Jiansheng Li. Large-Scale Synthesis of [email protected] Porous Carbon/Cobalt Nanofiber for Environmental Remediation by Advanced Oxidation Processes. ACS ES&T Engineering 2021, 1 (2) , 249-260.
  3. Xiao-Jie Yu, Jin Qu, Zuoying Yuan, Peng Min, Shu-Meng Hao, Zhong-Shuai Zhu, Xiaofeng Li, Dongzhi Yang, Zhong-Zhen Yu. Anisotropic [email protected] Hybrid Aerogels with High Flux and Excellent Stability as Building Blocks for Rapid Catalytic Degradation of Organic Contaminants in a Flow-Type Setup. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2019, 11 (37) , 34222-34231.
  4. Bojing Sun, Wenjie Ma, Na Wang, Ping Xu, Leijiang Zhang, Bianna Wang, Honghong Zhao, Kun-Yi Andrew Lin, Yunchen Du. Polyaniline: A New Metal-Free Catalyst for Peroxymonosulfate Activation with Highly Efficient and Durable Removal of Organic Pollutants. Environmental Science & Technology 2019, 53 (16) , 9771-9780.
  5. Abdellah Ait El Fakir, Zakaria Anfar, Mohamed Enneiymy, Amane Jada, Noureddine El Alem. Conjugated polymers templated carbonization to design N, S co-doped finely tunable carbon for enhanced synergistic catalysis. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 2022, 300 , 120732.
  6. Shiyu Liu, Cui Lai, Bisheng Li, Xigui Liu, Xuerong Zhou, Chen Zhang, Lei Qin, Ling Li, Mingming Zhang, Huan Yi, Yukui Fu, Huchuan Yan, Liang Chen. Heteroatom doping in metal-free carbonaceous materials for the enhancement of persulfate activation. Chemical Engineering Journal 2022, 427 , 131655.
  7. Jinsong Shi, Hongmin Cui, Jianguo Xu, Nanfu Yan, Chao Zhang, Shengyong You. Synthesis of nitrogen and sulfur co-doped carbons with chemical blowing method for CO2 adsorption. Fuel 2021, 305 , 121505.
  8. Xixi Wu, Teng Li, Ruizi Wang, Yixuan Zhang, Wenzhe Liu, Liangjie Yuan. One-pot green synthesis of Zero-Valent iron particles supported on N-Doped porous carbon for efficient removal of organic pollutants via Persulfate Activation: Low iron leaching and degradation mechanism. Separation and Purification Technology 2021, 279 , 119768.
  9. Dun Fu, Tonni Agustiono Kurniawan, Heng Li, Haitao Wang, Yuanpeng Wang, Qingbiao Li. Co-oxidative removal of arsenite and tetracycline based on a heterogeneous Fenton-like reaction using iron nanoparticles-impregnated biochar. Environmental Pollution 2021, 290 , 118062.
  10. Fencheng Yang, Guodong Jiang, Qing Chang, Peipei Huang, Ming Lei. Fe/N-doped carbon magnetic nanocubes toward highly efficient selective decolorization of organic dyes under ultrasonic irradiation. Chemosphere 2021, 283 , 131154.
  11. Jinfeng Li, Nan Zhang, Hongtao Zhao, Zhigang Li, Bo Tian, Yunchen Du. Cornstalk-derived macroporous carbon materials with enhanced microwave absorption. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics 2021, 32 (21) , 25758-25768.
  12. Yusheng Xu, Enzheng Hu, Dongyan Xu, Qingjie Guo. Activation of peroxymonosulfate by bimetallic CoMn oxides loaded on coal fly ash-derived SBA-15 for efficient degradation of Rhodamine B. Separation and Purification Technology 2021, 274 , 119081.
  13. Zhenyang Zhou, Qikai Shentu, Weijie Cai, Yuyuan Yao. Biomass-based porous materials encapsulating Iron phosphide nanoparticles for enhanced contaminant removal via peroxymonosulfate activation. Journal of Water Process Engineering 2021, 43 , 102242.
  14. Jian Ye, Yi Wang, Zhanguo Li, Dayi Yang, Chunxiang Li, Yongsheng Yan, Jiangdong Dai. 2D confinement freestanding graphene oxide composite membranes with enriched oxygen vacancies for enhanced organic contaminants removal via peroxymonosulfate activation. Journal of Hazardous Materials 2021, 417 , 126028.
  15. Wen-Da Oh, Julia Raudlatul Jannah Zaeni, Grzegorz Lisak, Kun-Yi Andrew Lin, Kah-Hon Leong, Zheng-Yi Choong. Accelerated organics degradation by peroxymonosulfate activated with biochar co-doped with nitrogen and sulfur. Chemosphere 2021, 277 , 130313.
  16. Wuqi Huang, Sa Xiao, Hua Zhong, Ming Yan, Xin Yang. Activation of persulfates by carbonaceous materials: A review. Chemical Engineering Journal 2021, 418 , 129297.
  17. Abdellah Ait El Fakir, Zakaria Anfar, Abdallah Amedlous, Asma Amjlef, Salaheddine Farsad, Amane Jada, Noureddine El Alem. Synergistic effect for efficient catalytic persulfate activation in conducting polymers-hematite sand composites: Enhancement of chemical stability. Applied Catalysis A: General 2021, 623 , 118246.
  18. Begüm Başer, Balal Yousaf, Ulku Yetis, Qumber Abbas, Eilhann E. Kwon, Shengsen Wang, Nanthi S. Bolan, Jörg Rinklebe. Formation of nitrogen functionalities in biochar materials and their role in the mitigation of hazardous emerging organic pollutants from wastewater. Journal of Hazardous Materials 2021, 416 , 126131.
  19. Chenhui Zhao, Binbin Shao, Ming Yan, Zhifeng Liu, Qinghua Liang, Qingyun He, Ting Wu, Yang Liu, Yuan Pan, Jing Huang, Jiajia Wang, Jie Liang, Lin Tang. Activation of peroxymonosulfate by biochar-based catalysts and applications in the degradation of organic contaminants: A review. Chemical Engineering Journal 2021, 416 , 128829.
  20. Zhuo Shen, Lingling Fan, Shangkun Yang, Yuyuan Yao, Haixiang Chen, Wentao Wang. Fe-based carbonitride as Fenton-like catalyst for the elimination of organic contaminants. Environmental Research 2021, 198 , 110486.
  21. Jingjing Li, Shuai Chen, Mengmeng Liu, Zhihong Li, Zhengping Dong, Fengwei Zhang, Xian‐Ming Zhang. Self‐Template Construction of High‐Performance Co, N‐Decorated Carbon Nanotubes from a Novel Cobalt Dicyandiamide Molecule. ChemCatChem 2021, 13 (11) , 2609-2617.
  22. Zhiyan Huang, Pingxiao Wu, Chenhui Liu, Meiqing Chen, Shanshan Yang, Zhi Dang, Nengwu Zhu. Multiple catalytic reaction sites induced non-radical/radical pathway with graphene layers encapsulated Fe-N-C toward highly efficient peroxymonosulfate (PMS) activation. Chemical Engineering Journal 2021, 413 , 127507.
  23. Shi-da Hou, Shi-lu Zhou, Shu-ming Zhang, Hong-guang Li. Carbon-dot-based solid-state luminescent materials: Synthesis and applications in white light emitting diodes and optical sensors. New Carbon Materials 2021, 36 (3) , 527-545.
  24. Hengyi Fu, Haoyu Luo, Qintie Lin, Quanfa Zhong, Zhuofan Huang, Yupeng Wang, Libin Wu. Transformation to nonradical pathway for the activation of peroxydisulfate after doping S into Fe3C-encapsulated N/S-codoped carbon nanotubes. Chemical Engineering Journal 2021, 409 , 128201.
  25. Xiaoya Ren, Jingjing Wang, Jiangfang Yu, Biao Song, Haopeng Feng, Maocai Shen, Hao Zhang, Jiajing Zou, Guangming Zeng, Lin Tang, Jiajia Wang. Waste valorization: Transforming the fishbone biowaste into biochar as an efficient persulfate catalyst for degradation of organic pollutant. Journal of Cleaner Production 2021, 291 , 125225.
  26. Wenjie Tian, Jingkai Lin, Huayang Zhang, Xiaoguang Duan, Hongqi Sun, Hao Wang, Shaobin Wang. Enhanced removals of micropollutants in binary organic systems by biomass derived porous carbon/peroxymonosulfate. Journal of Hazardous Materials 2021, 408 , 124459.
  27. Chen Chen, Yingzheng Zhu, Miao Tian, Ye Chen, Yingjie Yang, Kai Jiang, Shuyan Gao. Sustainable self-powered electro-Fenton degradation using N, S co-doped porous carbon catalyst fabricated with adsorption-pyrolysis-doping strategy. Nano Energy 2021, 81 , 105623.
  28. Zakaria Anfar, Abdellah Ait El Fakir, Mohamed Zbair, Zakaria Hafidi, Abdallah Amedlous, Mohammed Majdoub, Salaheddine Farsad, Asma Amjlef, Amane Jada, Noureddine El Alem. New functionalization approach synthesis of Sulfur doped, Nitrogen doped and Co-doped porous carbon: Superior metal-free Carbocatalyst for the catalytic oxidation of aqueous organics pollutants. Chemical Engineering Journal 2021, 405 , 126660.
  29. Yi-meng Huang, Guang Li, Mingzhen Li, Jijie Yin, Na Meng, Di Zhang, Xiao-qiang Cao, Fan-ping Zhu, Ming Chen, Lin Li, Xian-jun Lyu. Kelp-derived N-doped biochar activated peroxymonosulfate for ofloxacin degradation. Science of The Total Environment 2021, 754 , 141999.
  30. Yangke Long, Shun Li, Yiping Su, Shuyang Wang, Shiyin Zhao, Shubin Wang, Zhen Zhang, Wei Huang, Yong Liu, Zuotai Zhang. Sulfur-containing iron nanocomposites confined in S/N co-doped carbon for catalytic peroxymonosulfate oxidation of organic pollutants: Low iron leaching, degradation mechanism and intermediates. Chemical Engineering Journal 2021, 404 , 126499.
  31. Likun Chen, Yifei Huang, Manli Zhou, Kewen Xing, Longjun Rao, Weiyang Lv, Yuyuan Yao. Enhanced peroxymonosulfate activation process based on homogenously dispersed iron and nitrogen active sites on a three-dimensional porous carbon framework. Chemical Engineering Journal 2021, 404 , 126537.
  32. Cheng Huang, Chen Zhang, Danlian Huang, Dongbo Wang, Suhong Tian, Rongzhong Wang, Yang Yang, Wenjun Wang, Fanzhi Qin. Influence of surface functionalities of pyrogenic carbonaceous materials on the generation of reactive species towards organic contaminants: A review. Chemical Engineering Journal 2021, 404 , 127066.
  33. Jing Wang, Yuelin Wang, Ye Liang, Jicheng Zhou, Licheng Liu, Shirong Huang, Jinjun Cai. Nitrogen-doped carbons from in-situ glucose-coated ZIF-8 as efficient adsorbents for Rhodamine B removal from wastewater. Microporous and Mesoporous Materials 2021, 310 , 110662.
  34. Seyed Reza Mousavi-Qeydari, Abdolreza Samimi, Davod Mohebbi-Kalhori, Ebrahim Ahmadi. A novel activated carbon from human hair waste: Synthesis, characterization and utilization thereof as an efficient, reusable Ni (II) adsorbent. Current Research in Green and Sustainable Chemistry 2021, 4 , 100141.
  35. Peng-fei Xiao, Lu An, De-dong Wu. The use of carbon materials in persulfate-based advanced oxidation processes: A review. New Carbon Materials 2020, 35 (6) , 667-683.
  36. Zhonghao Wan, Yuqing Sun, Daniel C.W. Tsang, Eakalak Khan, Alex C.K. Yip, Yun Hau Ng, Jörg Rinklebe, Yong Sik Ok. Customised fabrication of nitrogen-doped biochar for environmental and energy applications. Chemical Engineering Journal 2020, 401 , 126136.
  37. Changqiang Yu, Min Wen, Shuhua Li, Zhen Tong, Yanhong Yin, Xianbin Liu, Yesheng Li, Ziping Wu, Dionysios D. Dionysiou. Elbaite catalyze peroxymonosulfate for advanced oxidation of organic pollutants: Hydroxyl groups induced generation of reactive oxygen species. Journal of Hazardous Materials 2020, 398 , 122932.
  38. Lei Yang, Yun Chen, Da Ouyang, Jingchun Yan, Linbo Qian, Lu Han, Mengfang Chen, Jing Li, Mingyue Gu. Mechanistic insights into adsorptive and oxidative removal of monochlorobenzene in biochar-supported nanoscale zero-valent iron/persulfate system. Chemical Engineering Journal 2020, 400 , 125811.
  39. Weijie Cai, Zhenyang Zhou, Xiaoyi Tan, Wentao Wang, Weiyang Lv, Haixiang Chen, Qin Zhao, Yuyuan Yao. Magnetic iron phosphide particles mediated peroxymonosulfate activation for highly efficient elimination of sulfonamide antibiotics. Chemical Engineering Journal 2020, 397 , 125279.
  40. Farshid Ghanbari, Mahtab Riahi, Babak Kakavandi, Xiaoting Hong, Kun-Yi Andrew Lin. Intensified peroxydisulfate/microparticles-zero valent iron process through aeration for degradation of organic pollutants: Kinetic studies, mechanism and effect of anions. Journal of Water Process Engineering 2020, 36 , 101321.
  41. Farshid Ghanbari, Junxue Wu, Masoumeh Khatebasreh, Dahu Ding, Kun-Yi Andrew Lin. Efficient treatment for landfill leachate through sequential electrocoagulation, electrooxidation and PMS/UV/CuFe2O4 process. Separation and Purification Technology 2020, 242 , 116828.
  42. Zakaria Anfar, Abdellah Ait El Fakir, Hassan Ait Ahsaine, Mohamed Zbair, Salaheddine Farsad, Fabrice Morlet-Savary, Amane Jada, Noureddine El Alem. Nitrogen doped graphitic porous carbon from almond shells as an efficient persulfate activator for organic compound degradation. New Journal of Chemistry 2020, 44 (22) , 9391-9401.
  43. Julia Raudlatul Jannah Zaeni, Jun-Wei Lim, Zhaohui Wang, Dahu Ding, Yong-Shen Chua, Si-Ling Ng, Wen-Da Oh. In situ nitrogen functionalization of biochar via one-pot synthesis for catalytic peroxymonosulfate activation: Characteristics and performance studies. Separation and Purification Technology 2020, 241 , 116702.
  44. Zhonghao Wan, Yuqing Sun, Daniel C. W. Tsang, Deyi Hou, Xinde Cao, Shicheng Zhang, Bin Gao, Yong Sik Ok. Sustainable remediation with an electroactive biochar system: mechanisms and perspectives. Green Chemistry 2020, 22 (9) , 2688-2711.
  45. Haisen Yang, Chun Li, Jing Zhang. Determining roles of in-situ measured surface potentials of phase controlled synthesized MnO2 nanostructures for superficial adsorption. Applied Surface Science 2020, 513 , 145752.
  46. Qiang Chen, Xiaofei Tan, Yunguo Liu, Shaobo Liu, Meifang Li, Yanling Gu, Peng Zhang, Shujing Ye, Zhongzhu Yang, Yuanyuan Yang. Biomass-derived porous graphitic carbon materials for energy and environmental applications. Journal of Materials Chemistry A 2020, 8 (12) , 5773-5811.
  47. Nazmul Abedin Khan, Biswa Nath Bhadra, Suk Woo Park, Yong‐Su Han, Sung Hwa Jhung. Tungsten Nitride, Well‐Dispersed on Porous Carbon: Remarkable Catalyst, Produced without Addition of Ammonia, for the Oxidative Desulfurization of Liquid Fuel. Small 2020, 16 (12) , 1901564.
  48. Yue Yang, Mengyuan Wang, Penghui Shi, Junfeng Wu, Yulin Min, Qunjie Xu, Yifei Guo. Recycling of nitrogen-containing waste diapers for catalytic contaminant oxidation: Occurrence of radical and non-radical pathways. Chemical Engineering Journal 2020, 384 , 123246.
  49. Jing Wang, Yuelin Wang, Hongbo Hu, Qipeng Yang, Jinjun Cai. From metal–organic frameworks to porous carbon materials: recent progress and prospects from energy and environmental perspectives. Nanoscale 2020, 12 (7) , 4238-4268.
  50. Xiao Chen, Wen-Da Oh, Peng-Hui Zhang, Richard D. Webster, Teik-Thye Lim. Surface construction of nitrogen-doped chitosan-derived carbon nanosheets with hierarchically porous structure for enhanced sulfacetamide degradation via peroxymonosulfate activation: Maneuverable porosity and active sites. Chemical Engineering Journal 2020, 382 , 122908.
  51. Junmei Luo, Shufeng Bo, Qingda An, Zuoyi Xiao, Haisong Wang, Weijie Cai, Shangru Zhai, Zhongcheng Li. Designing ordered composites with confined Co–N/C layers for efficient pollutant degradation: Structure-dependent performance and PMS activation mechanism. Microporous and Mesoporous Materials 2020, 293 , 109810.
  52. Qin Zhou, Zhongkui Zhao. Sulfate Surfactant Assisted Approach to Fabricate Sulphur‐Doped Supported Nanodiamond Catalyst on Carbon Nanotube with Unprecedented Catalysis for Ethylbenzene Dehydrogenation. ChemCatChem 2020, 12 (1) , 342-349.
  53. Yunjin Yao, Hongyu Yin, Mengxue Gao, Yi Hu, Huanhuan Hu, Maojing Yu, Shaobin Wang. Electronic structure modulation of covalent organic frameworks by single-atom Fe doping for enhanced oxidation of aqueous contaminants. Chemical Engineering Science 2019, 209 , 115211.
  54. Wen-Da Oh, Andrei Veksha, Xiao Chen, Rohana Adnan, Jun-Wei Lim, Kah-Hon Leong, Teik-Thye Lim. Catalytically active nitrogen-doped porous carbon derived from biowastes for organics removal via peroxymonosulfate activation. Chemical Engineering Journal 2019, 374 , 947-957.
  55. Yunjin Yao, Yi Hu, Huanhuan Hu, Luwang Chen, Maojing Yu, Mengxue Gao, Shaobin Wang. Metal-free catalysts of graphitic carbon nitride–covalent organic frameworks for efficient pollutant destruction in water. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 2019, 554 , 376-387.
  56. Bingyue Li, Ruimin Xing, Santosh V. Mohite, Sanjay S. Latthe, Akira Fujishima, Shanhu Liu, Yanmei Zhou. CoS2 nanodots anchored into heteroatom-doped carbon layer via a biomimetic strategy: Boosting the oxygen evolution and supercapacitor performance. Journal of Power Sources 2019, 436 , 226862.
  57. Xiao Chen, Xiaoguang Duan, Wen-Da Oh, Peng-Hui Zhang, Chao-Ting Guan, Yi-An Zhu, Teik-Thye Lim. Insights into nitrogen and boron-co-doped graphene toward high-performance peroxymonosulfate activation: Maneuverable N-B bonding configurations and oxidation pathways. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 2019, 253 , 419-432.
  58. Cheng Chen, Tengfei Ma, Yanan Shang, Baoyu Gao, Bo Jin, Hongbing Dan, Qian Li, Qinyan Yue, Yanwei Li, Yu Wang, Xing Xu. In-situ pyrolysis of Enteromorpha as carbocatalyst for catalytic removal of organic contaminants: Considering the intrinsic N/Fe in Enteromorpha and non-radical reaction. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 2019, 250 , 382-395.
  59. Ming-Tong Yang, Wai-Chi Tong, Jechan Lee, Eilhann Kwon, Kun-Yi Andrew Lin. CO2 as a reaction medium for pyrolysis of lignin leading to magnetic cobalt-embedded biochar as an enhanced catalyst for Oxone activation. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 2019, 545 , 16-24.
  60. Ming Zhang, Rui Luo, Chaohai Wang, Wuxiang Zhang, Xin Yan, Xiuyun Sun, Lianjun Wang, Jiansheng Li. Confined pyrolysis of metal–organic frameworks to N-doped hierarchical carbon for non-radical dominated advanced oxidation processes. Journal of Materials Chemistry A 2019, 7 (20) , 12547-12555.