Effect of Microwave Heating on Persulfate Activation for Rapid Degradation and Mineralization of p-Nitrophenol

  • Limin Hu
    Limin Hu
    State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, School of Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, No. 73 Huanghe Street, Nangang District, Harbin 150090, China
    More by Limin Hu
  • Guangshan Zhang*
    Guangshan Zhang
    State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, School of Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, No. 73 Huanghe Street, Nangang District, Harbin 150090, China
    *Phone: +86 15245095893. E-mail: [email protected] (G. S. Zhang).
  • Qiao Wang
    Qiao Wang
    State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, School of Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, No. 73 Huanghe Street, Nangang District, Harbin 150090, China
    More by Qiao Wang
  • Xiaojing Wang
    Xiaojing Wang
    State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, School of Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, No. 73 Huanghe Street, Nangang District, Harbin 150090, China
  • , and 
  • Peng Wang*
    Peng Wang
    State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, School of Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, No. 73 Huanghe Street, Nangang District, Harbin 150090, China
    *Phone: +86 451 86283557. E-mail: [email protected] (P. Wang).
    More by Peng Wang
Cite this: ACS Sustainable Chem. Eng. 2019, 7, 13, 11662–11671
Publication Date (Web):June 1, 2019
Copyright © 2019 American Chemical Society
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Supporting Info (1)»


Microwave (MW) irradiation is a promising alternative method for the treatment of sewage. In the present work, persulfate (PS) was effectively activated under microwave heating for p-nitrophenol (PNP) degradation in water. As a result, at a microwave power of 300 W, PS was successfully activated by microwave, resulting in a superior PNP degradation efficiency (96.8%) within 14 min. The specific microwave effect was explored from the perspectives of the PS utilization efficiency and the reaction activation energy in the PS+MW system, using a conventional heating system as the control. In addition, the effects of the initial pH, coexisting inorganic ions, and natural organic matter were evaluated, and the results showed that these three factors had negligible effects on PNP removal in the PS+MW system. Based on the results of the quenching experiment and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) detection, the major active radical was identified as SO4•–, while •OH played a small role during the oxidation process. The practical application of this system was examined, and it performed well in two water matrices: secondary treated wastewater (WW) and the Songhua River.

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  • The materials used in this work; the characteristics of different water matrices; the schematic of the reaction apparatus; the evolution of temperature along with time under microwave power; and the calculation of kinetics of various systems (PDF)

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