Facile Fabrication of Hierarchical TiO2 Nanobelt/ZnO Nanorod Heterogeneous Nanostructure: An Efficient Photoanode for Water Splitting

View Author Information
Key Laboratory of Functional Inorganic Material Chemistry, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Heilongjiang University, Harbin 150080, People’s Republic of China
College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012, People’s Republic of China
*E-mail: [email protected]. Tel.: +86 451 8660 9141. Fax: +86 451 8667 3647.
Cite this: ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2013, 5, 17, 8314–8320
Publication Date (Web):August 19, 2013
Copyright © 2013 American Chemical Society
Article Views
Read OnlinePDF (3 MB)
Supporting Info (1)»


The TiO2 nanobelt/ZnO nanorod composite photoelectrodes with flower-like and/or grass-like microstructures have been fabricated via a facile solution growth routine, just by controlling the treatment of the TiO2 nanobelt substrate. For the flower-like composite, the ZnO nanorods disperse orientationally on TiO2 nanobelt films, while for the grass-like one, ZnO nanorods grow disorderly like grass on the TiO2 nanobelt film surface. Furthermore, quasi-Fermi energy level changes of both photoelectrodes have been quantitatively characterized by the surface photovoltage based on the Kelvin probe, which clearly reveals the efficiency of photogenerated electron–hole separation. Owing to the decrease of quasi-Fermi energy level, the flower-like TiO2 nanobelt/ZnO nanorod heterogeneous nanostructure presents a high efficiency of photogenerated electron–hole separation. Therefore, the flower-like TiO2 nanobelt/ZnO nanorod heterogeneous nanostructure photoelectrode has achieved a better performance of water splitting compared with the grass-like TiO2 nanobelt/ZnO nanorod one.

Supporting Information

Jump To

Figures S1 and S2 and Scheme S1. This material is available free of charge via the Internet at

Terms & Conditions

Most electronic Supporting Information files are available without a subscription to ACS Web Editions. Such files may be downloaded by article for research use (if there is a public use license linked to the relevant article, that license may permit other uses). Permission may be obtained from ACS for other uses through requests via the RightsLink permission system:

Cited By

This article is cited by 80 publications.

  1. Manzar Sohail, Nadeem Baig, Muhammad Sher, Rabia Jamil, Muhammad Altaf, Sultan Akhtar, Muhammad Sharif. A Novel Tin-Doped Titanium Oxide Nanocomposite for Efficient Photo-Anodic Water Splitting. ACS Omega 2020, 5 (12) , 6405-6413.
  2. Kyuwon Jeong, Prashant R. Deshmukh, Jinse Park, Youngku Sohn, Weon Gyu Shin. ZnO-TiO2 Core–Shell Nanowires: A Sustainable Photoanode for Enhanced Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering 2018, 6 (5) , 6518-6526.
  3. Lun Pan, Guo-Qiang Shen, Jing-Wen Zhang, Xiao-Chu Wei, Li Wang, Ji-Jun Zou, and Xiangwen Zhang . TiO2–ZnO Composite Sphere Decorated with ZnO Clusters for Effective Charge Isolation in Photocatalysis. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 2015, 54 (29) , 7226-7232.
  4. Danish Iqbal, Aleksander Kostka, Asif Bashir, Adnan Sarfraz, Ying Chen, Andreas D. Wieck, and Andreas Erbe . Sequential Growth of Zinc Oxide Nanorod Arrays at Room Temperature via a Corrosion Process: Application in Visible Light Photocatalysis. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2014, 6 (21) , 18728-18734.
  5. Qiong Liu, Hao Lu, Zhiwei Shi, Fangli Wu, Jun Guo, Kaimo Deng, and Liang Li . 2D ZnIn2S4 Nanosheet/1D TiO2 Nanorod Heterostructure Arrays for Improved Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2014, 6 (19) , 17200-17207.
  6. Mi Wu, Wei-Jian Chen, Yu-Hua Shen, Fang-Zhi Huang, Chuan-Hao Li, and Shi-Kuo Li . In Situ Growth of Matchlike ZnO/Au Plasmonic Heterostructure for Enhanced Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2014, 6 (17) , 15052-15060.
  7. Si-yao Guo, Song Han, Bo Chi, Jian Pu, and Jian Li . A Facile Low-Temperature Approach to Designing Controlled Amorphous-Based Titania Composite Photocatalysts with Excellent Noble-Metal-Free Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2014, 6 (7) , 4743-4751.
  8. Baochang Cheng, Guohong Wu, Zhiyong Ouyang, Xiaohui Su, Yanhe Xiao, and Shuijin Lei . Effects of Interface States on Photoexcited Carriers in ZnO/Zn2SnO4 Type-II Radial Heterostructure Nanowires. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2014, 6 (6) , 4057-4062.
  9. Razan Fateh, Ralf Dillert, and Detlef Bahnemann . Self-Cleaning Properties, Mechanical Stability, and Adhesion Strength of Transparent Photocatalytic TiO2–ZnO Coatings on Polycarbonate. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2014, 6 (4) , 2270-2278.
  10. Qijia Ding, Dongbo Xu, Jinrui Ding, Weiqiang Fan, Xiaowu Zhang, Yihuan Li, Weidong Shi. ZIF-8 derived ZnO/TiO2 heterostructure with rich oxygen vacancies for promoting photoelectrochemical water splitting. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 2021, 603 , 120-130.
  11. Joo-Won Lee, Ki-Hyun Cho, Joon-Soo Yoon, Young-Min Kim, Yun-Mo Sung. Photoelectrochemical water splitting using one-dimensional nanostructures. Journal of Materials Chemistry A 2021, 9 (38) , 21576-21606.
  12. Ruixue Wang, Lin Du, Wenqiang Gao, Jianlong Li, Narcisse T. Tsona, Xiaofei Zhang, Xinming Hu, Wenxing Wang, Hong Liu. Enhanced photocatalytic performance of PdO-loaded heterostructured nanobelts to degrade phenol. Chemosphere 2021, 276 , 130266.
  13. Siping Huo, Shiwen Ding, Chongyang Zhao, Chaoyue Wang, Fengjiao Yu, Jun Fang, Yang Yang. Growth and Photocatalytic Activities of Porous ZnO/TiO2 Composite Microspheres with Crystalline–Amorphous Phase Boundary. Catalysis Letters 2021, 151 (7) , 1937-1947.
  14. Qijia Ding, Lantong Gou, Danrui Wei, Dongbo Xu, Weiqiang Fan, Weidong Shi. Metal-organic framework derived Co3O4/TiO2 heterostructure nanoarrays for promote photoelectrochemical water splitting. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 2021, 46 (49) , 24965-24976.
  15. Yiran Tian, Xiuting Li, Fuyan Wang, Chenjie Gu, Ziqi Zhao, Hongjie Si, Tao Jiang. SERS-based immunoassay and degradation of CA19-9 mediated by gold nanowires anchored magnetic–semiconductor nanocomposites. Journal of Hazardous Materials 2021, 403 , 124009.
  16. Junxiong Guo, Yiyi Li, Shangdong Li, Xumei Cui, Yu Liu, Wen Huang, Linna Mao, Xiongbang Wei, Xiaosheng Zhang. One-step fabrication of TiO2/graphene hybrid mesoporous film with enhanced photocatalytic activity and photovoltaic performance. Chinese Journal of Catalysis 2020, 41 (8) , 1208-1216.
  17. Mengshi Chen, Ye Xiao. Construction of Z-Scheme CdS/WO3 Heterostructure on Photonic Crystals with High-Efficiency Photocatalysis Performance. Journal of Electronic Materials 2020, 49 (8) , 4995-5002.
  18. Mostafa Afifi Hassan, Aadil Waseem, Muhammad Ali Johar, Indrajit V. Bagal, Jun-Seok Ha, Sang-Wan Ryu. Single-step fabrication of 3D hierarchical ZnO/ZnS heterojunction branched nanowires by MOCVD for enhanced photoelectrochemical water splitting. Journal of Materials Chemistry A 2020, 8 (17) , 8300-8312.
  19. Qing Liu, Jiang Shi, Zhenzhu Xu, Bolin Zhang, Hongliang Liu, Yinlei Lin, Fangliang Gao, Shuti Li, Guoqiang Li. InGaN Nanorods Decorated with Au Nanoparticles for Enhanced Water Splitting Based on Surface Plasmon Resonance Effects. Nanomaterials 2020, 10 (5) , 912.
  20. Ali Balati, Akanksha Matta, Kelly Nash, Heather J. Shipley. Heterojunction of vertically aligned MoS2 layers to Hydrogenated Black TiO2 and Rutile Based Inorganic Hollow Microspheres for the highly enhanced visible light arsenic photooxidation. Composites Part B: Engineering 2020, 185 , 107785.
  21. Filip Mamon, Radek Fajgar, Vera Jandova, Eva Koci, Ivo Jakubec, Alexander Zhigunov, Tatjana Brovdyova, Snejana Bakardjieva. TiO 2 microrods with stacked 3D nanovoids for photoelectrochemical water splitting. Pure and Applied Chemistry 2019, 91 (11) , 1733-1747.
  22. Chih-Chieh Wang, Chih-Yu Chou, Shin-Ruey Yi, Huey-Dar Chen. Deposition of heterojunction of ZnO on hydrogenated TiO2 nanotube arrays by atomic layer deposition for enhanced photoelectrochemical water splitting. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 2019, 44 (54) , 28685-28697.
  23. Junho Jun, Heejun Kim, Hak-Jong Choi, Tae-Won Lee, Sucheol Ju, Jeong Min Baik, Heon Lee. A large-area fabrication of moth-eye patterned Au/TiO2 gap-plasmon structure and its application to plasmonic solar water splitting. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 2019, 201 , 110033.
  24. Joanna Kargul, Małgorzata Kiliszek. Artificial Photosynthesis. 2019,,, 271-309.
  25. Alberto Gasparotto, Chiara Maccato, Cinzia Sada, Giorgio Carraro, Dimitris I. Kondarides, Symeon Bebelis, Athanasia Petala, Andrea La Porta, Thomas Altantzis, Davide Barreca. Controlled Surface Modification of ZnO Nanostructures with Amorphous TiO 2 for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting. Advanced Sustainable Systems 2019, 3 (9) , 1900046.
  26. Kumari Asha, Anamika Banerjee, Sakshi Saxena, Saif A. Khan, Indra Sulaniya, Vibha Rani Satsangi, Rohit Shrivastav, Rama Kant, Sahab Dass. Morphological influence of electrode/electrolyte interface towards augmenting the efficiency of photoelectrochemical water splitting – A case study on ZnO. Journal of Power Sources 2019, 432 , 38-47.
  27. Jun Jie Liu, Ming Quan Liu, Yan Yi Liu, Nuo Yuan Wang, Geng Zhe Shen, Zhi Hao Liu, Wei Jia Yang, Mei Chen, Chi Zhang, Ping Liang. Rapid Hydrothermal Growth of ZnO Nanorods on a Magnetron Sputtered Thick ZnO Seed Layer. Key Engineering Materials 2019, 815 , 9-14.
  28. Liu-Dan Zhao, Qian Zhang, Jin-Bin Fan, Li-Qiang Yin, Peng-Wei Qi, Hong-Chang Yao, Zhong-Jun Li. Improvement of the photoelectrochemical performance of vertically aligned WO3 nanosheet array film with a disordered surface layer by electroreduction. Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry 2019, 23 (5) , 1621-1630.
  29. Jingjing He, Meng Wang, Xiaofeng Wu, Yu Sun, Keke Huang, Huanwen Chen, Lu Gao, Shouhua Feng. Influence of controlled Pd nanoparticles decorated TiO2 nanowire arrays for efficient photoelectrochemical water splitting. Journal of Alloys and Compounds 2019, 785 , 391-397.
  30. Snejana Bakardjieva, Radek Fajgar, Ivo Jakubec, Eva Koci, Alexander Zhigunov, Efthalia Chatzisymeon, Konstantina Davididou. Photocatalytic degradation of bisphenol A induced by dense nanocavities inside aligned 2D-TiO2 nanostructures. Catalysis Today 2019, 328 , 189-201.
  31. Xiaolan Kang, Xue-Zhi Song, Sihang Liu, Mingzhu Pei, Wen Wen, Zhenquan Tan. In situ formation of defect-engineered N-doped TiO 2 porous mesocrystals for enhanced photo-degradation and PEC performance. Nanoscale Advances 2019, 1 (4) , 1372-1379.
  32. Mostafa Afifi Hassan, Muhammad Ali Johar, Aadil Waseem, Indrajit V. Bagal, Jun-Seok Ha, Sang-Wan Ryu. Type-II ZnO/ZnS core-shell nanowires: Earth-abundant photoanode for solar-driven photoelectrochemical water splitting. Optics Express 2019, 27 (4) , A184.
  33. Ahmad Nazeer Che Mat, Nor Asrina Sairi, Wan Jefrey Basirun, Majid Rezayi, Mohammad Asri Mat Teridi, Muhammad Mazhar. Photoelectrocatalytic oxidation of methanol over RuO2MnO2Co3O4 supported porous anatase under visible light irradiation. Materials Chemistry and Physics 2019, 224 , 196-205.
  34. Jingsheng Cai, Jiali Shen, Xinnan Zhang, Yun Hau Ng, Jianying Huang, Wenxi Guo, Changjian Lin, Yuekun Lai. Light-Driven Sustainable Hydrogen Production Utilizing TiO 2 Nanostructures: A Review. Small Methods 2019, 3 (1) , 1800184.
  35. Alejandra Mazabuel-Collazos, Caterine Daza Gómez, J.E. Rodríguez-Páez. ZnO-TiO2 nanocomposites synthesized by wet-chemical route: Study of their structural and optical properties. Materials Chemistry and Physics 2019, 222 , 230-245.
  36. Amir Ghobadi, Turkan Gamze Ulusoy Ghobadi, Ferdi Karadas, Ekmel Ozbay. Angstrom Thick ZnO Passivation Layer to Improve the Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting Performance of a TiO2 Nanowire Photoanode: The Role of Deposition Temperature. Scientific Reports 2018, 8 (1)
  37. Shaohua Shen, Jie Chen, Meng Wang, Xia Sheng, Xiangyan Chen, Xinjian Feng, Samuel S. Mao. Titanium dioxide nanostructures for photoelectrochemical applications. Progress in Materials Science 2018, 98 , 299-385.
  38. Bo Han, Jixian Wang, Chaoxian Yan, Yapeng Dong, Yanjie Xu, Rong Nie, Huanwang Jing. The photoelectrocatalytic CO2 reduction on [email protected] heterojunction by tuning the conduction band potential. Electrochimica Acta 2018, 285 , 23-29.
  39. Wei Jiang, Wei Li, Wenjuan Lu, Yanfeng Wang, Jie Sun, Simeng Shao, Pingping Zhang. Fabrication of highly efficient water splitting CoxNi1-xTa2O6 (x = 0–1) photocatalysts with high crystallinity and surface nanostructure. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 2018, 43 (31) , 14319-14327.
  40. Pratibha R. Nikam, Prashant K. Baviskar, Sutripto Majumder, Jaydeep V. Sali, Babasaheb R. Sankapal. SILAR controlled CdSe nanoparticles sensitized ZnO nanorods photoanode for solar cell application: Electrolyte effect. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 2018, 524 , 148-155.
  41. M. Humayun, F. Raziq, A. Khan, W. Luo. Modification strategies of TiO 2 for potential applications in photocatalysis: a critical review. Green Chemistry Letters and Reviews 2018, 11 (2) , 86-102.
  42. Haotian Pi, Dantong Zhang, Xinmeng Zhang, Zhao Jin, Lei Zhang, Xiaoqiang Cui, Weitao Zheng. Passivation of the surface imperfection of TiO 2 by using ZIF-8 for efficient carrier separation/transfer. Dalton Transactions 2018, 47 (1) , 209-214.
  43. Jasmin S. Shaikh, Navajsharif S. Shaikh, Sawanta S. Mali, Jyoti V. Patil, Krishna K. Pawar, Pongsakorn Kanjanaboos, Chang Kook Hong, J. H. Kim, Pramod S. Patil. Nanoarchitectures in dye-sensitized solar cells: metal oxides, oxide perovskites and carbon-based materials. Nanoscale 2018, 10 (11) , 4987-5034.
  44. M. I. Khan, Muhammad Saleem, K. A. Bhatti, Rabia Qindeel, Hayat Saeed Althobaiti, Noorah Alonizan. Comparative study of multilayered ZnO/TiO2/ZnO and TiO2/ZnO/TiO2 thin films prepared by sol–gel dip coating method. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics 2017, 28 (23) , 17499-17504.
  45. Liguo Gao, Jingwen Du, Tingli Ma. Photocatalytic activity enhanced by 1D TiO 2 nanobelts and 2D BiVO 4 nanosheets heterostructures. Micro & Nano Letters 2017, 12 (9) , 580-584.
  46. Maciej Kwiatkowski, Rémi Chassagnon, Nicolas Geoffroy, Frédéric Herbst, Olivier Heintz, Igor Bezverkhyy, Magdalena Skompska. Enhancement of visible light photoelectrocatalytic activity of ZnO(core)/TiO2(shell) composite by N-doping and decorating with Au0 nanoparticles. Electrochimica Acta 2017, 246 , 213-225.
  47. Maciej Kwiatkowski, Rémi Chassagnon, Olivier Heintz, Nicolas Geoffroy, Magdalena Skompska, Igor Bezverkhyy. Improvement of photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical activity of ZnO/TiO2 core/shell system through additional calcination: Insight into the mechanism. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 2017, 204 , 200-208.
  48. Sujuan Hu, Baoling Wang, Mingshan Zhu, Yinhai Ma, Zhonghao Lv, Hai Wang. High-performance 1D type-II [email protected] core-shell nanorods arrays photoanodes for photoelectrochemical solar fuel production. Applied Surface Science 2017, 403 , 126-132.
  49. Junyu Zhang, Guangcan Xiao, Fang-Xing Xiao, Bin Liu. Revisiting one-dimensional TiO 2 based hybrid heterostructures for heterogeneous photocatalysis: a critical review. Materials Chemistry Frontiers 2017, 1 (2) , 231-250.
  50. Si-Yao Guo, Jian-Guo Dai, Tie-Jun Zhao, Shuai-Dong Hou, Peng Zhang, Peng-Gang Wang, Guo-Xing Sun. A novel microporous [email protected] 2 /graphene ternary nanocomposite with enhanced photocatalytic activity. RSC Advances 2017, 7 (58) , 36787-36792.
  51. Son Hoang, Pu‐Xian Gao. Nanowire Array Structures for Photocatalytic Energy Conversion and Utilization: A Review of Design Concepts, Assembly and Integration, and Function Enabling. Advanced Energy Materials 2016, 6 (23) , 1600683.
  52. Yi Xia, Jing Wang, Ruosong Chen, Dali Zhou, Lan Xiang. A Review on the Fabrication of Hierarchical ZnO Nanostructures for Photocatalysis Application. Crystals 2016, 6 (11) , 148.
  53. Canjun Liu, Yahui Yang, Wenzhang Li, Jie Li, Yaomin Li, Qiyuan Chen. A novel Bi 2 S 3 nanowire @ TiO 2 nanorod heterogeneous nanostructure for photoelectrochemical hydrogen generation. Chemical Engineering Journal 2016, 302 , 717-724.
  54. Caiyun Wu, Lihong Qi, Yujin Chen, Qiuyun Ouyang, Chunyan Li. Dye-sensitized solar cells based on two-dimensional TiO2 nanosheets as the scattering layers. Research on Chemical Intermediates 2016, 42 (6) , 5653-5664.
  55. Mahadeo A. Mahadik, Pravin S. Shinde, Min Cho, Jum Suk Jang. Metal oxide top layer as an interfacial promoter on a ZnIn2S4/TiO2 heterostructure photoanode for enhanced photoelectrochemical performance. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 2016, 184 , 337-346.
  56. Qianqian Yang, Dingguo Li, Binbin Yu, Shengli Huang, Jiayuan Wang, Shuping Li, Junyong Kang. Size effect on morphology and optical properties of branched ZnO/Si nanowire arrays. Physics Letters A 2016, 380 (9-10) , 1044-1048.
  57. M. M. Momeni, Z. Nazari. Fabrication of new photoanodes for solar-water-splitting photoelectrochemical cells: synergistic effect between platinum and nanocomposite photocatalysts. Materials Research Innovations 2016, 20 (1) , 51-57.
  58. Alireza Bahramian, Daryoosh Vashaee. In-situ fabricated transparent conducting nanofiber-shape polyaniline/coral-like TiO2 thin film: Application in bifacial dye-sensitized solar cells. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 2015, 143 , 284-295.
  59. Caitian Gao, Zemin Zhang, Xiaodong Li, Lulu Chen, Youqing Wang, Yongmin He, Feng Teng, Jinyuan Zhou, Weihua Han, Erqing Xie. Synergistic effects in three-dimensional SnO2/TiO2/CdS multi-heterojunction structure for highly efficient photoelectrochemical hydrogen production. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 2015, 141 , 101-107.
  60. Weiping Zhang, Xinyan Xiao, Lili Zheng, Caixia Wan. Fabrication of TiO 2 /MoS 2 Composite Photocatalyst and Its Photocatalytic Mechanism for Degradation of Methyl Orange under Visible Light. The Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering 2015, 93 (9) , 1594-1602.
  61. Xishun Jiang, Qibin Lin, Qingqing Ye, Xianli Xie, Zhongwei Li, Yunfang Ren, Gang He, Zhaoqi Sun. Optical and photoelectron-chemical properties of TiO2 films by using hydrothermal method. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics 2015, 26 (9) , 6557-6562.
  62. Wei Qiang, Li Wei, Wang Shaodan, Bai Yu. Superior environment resistance of quartz crystal microbalance with anatase TiO2/ZnO nanorod composite films. Applied Surface Science 2015, 347 , 755-762.
  63. M. H. Xu, Z. H. Wang, L. Z. Liu, Q. Yang, Z. A. Yu, L. J. Shen, W. Zhong, Y. W. Du. Exchange bias in LiNi 0.5 Mn 1.5 O 4 –NiO nanocomposites. Materials Research Innovations 2015, 19 (5) , 355-360.
  64. Yan Zhang, Jinqiu Zhang, Mengyan Nie, Kai Sun, Chunhu Li, Jianqiang Yu. Photoelectrochemical water splitting under visible light over anti-photocorrosive In2O3-coupling ZnO nanorod arrays photoanode. Journal of Nanoparticle Research 2015, 17 (7)
  65. Juan C. Colmenares, Ewelina Kuna, Szymon Jakubiak, Jakub Michalski, Krzysztof Kurzydłowski. Polypropylene nonwoven filter with nanosized ZnO rods: Promising hybrid photocatalyst for water purification. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 2015, 170-171 , 273-282.
  66. Rongrong Fu, Qingyao Wang, Shanmin Gao, Zeyan Wang, Baibiao Huang, Ying Dai, Jun Lu. Effect of different processes and Ti/Zn molar ratios on the structure, morphology, and enhanced photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic performance of Ti3+ self-doped titanium–zinc hybrid oxides. Journal of Power Sources 2015, 285 , 449-459.
  67. Zhaoke Zheng, Wen Xie, Zhi Shiuh Lim, Lu You, Junling Wang. CdS sensitized 3D hierarchical TiO2/ZnO heterostructure for efficient solar energy conversion. Scientific Reports 2015, 4 (1)
  68. Chuang Han, Zhang Chen, Nan Zhang, Juan Carlos Colmenares, Yi-Jun Xu. Hierarchically CdS Decorated 1D ZnO Nanorods-2D Graphene Hybrids: Low Temperature Synthesis and Enhanced Photocatalytic Performance. Advanced Functional Materials 2015, 25 (2) , 221-229.
  69. Pan-Yong Kuang, Min-Hua Liang, Wan-Yi Kong, Zhao-Qing Liu, Yun-Ping Guo, Hong-Juan Wang, Nan Li, Yu-Zhi Su, Shuang Chen. Anion-assisted one-pot synthesis of 1D magnetic α- and β-MnO 2 nanostructures for recyclable water treatment application. New Journal of Chemistry 2015, 39 (4) , 2497-2505.
  70. Changlong Chen, Jonathon Moir, Navid Soheilnia, Benoit Mahler, Laura Hoch, Kristine Liao, Veronika Hoepfner, Paul O'Brien, Chenxi Qian, Le He, Geoffrey A. Ozin. Morphology-controlled In 2 O 3 nanostructures enhance the performance of photoelectrochemical water oxidation. Nanoscale 2015, 7 (8) , 3683-3693.
  71. Ming Zhao, Bishnu Prasad Bastakoti, Yunqi Li, Hua Xu, Jinhua Ye, Zongwen Liu, Yusuke Yamauchi. Mesoporous TiO 2 /Zn 2 Ti 3 O 8 hybrid films synthesized by polymeric micelle assembly. Chemical Communications 2015, 51 (78) , 14582-14585.
  72. Zhenhu Li, Shuanglong Feng, Shuangyi Liu, Xin Li, Liang Wang, Wenqiang Lu. A three-dimensional interconnected hierarchical FeOOH/TiO 2 /ZnO nanostructural photoanode for enhancing the performance of photoelectrochemical water oxidation. Nanoscale 2015, 7 (45) , 19178-19183.
  73. Zhaojie Wang, Siyuan Liu, Tingting Jiang, Xiuru Xu, Jun Zhang, Changhua An, Ce Wang. N-type SnO 2 nanosheets standing on p-type carbon nanofibers: a novel hierarchical nanostructures based hydrogen sensor. RSC Advances 2015, 5 (79) , 64582-64587.
  74. Mu Li, Kun Chang, Tao Wang, Lequan Liu, Huabin Zhang, Peng Li, Jinhua Ye. Hierarchical nanowire arrays based on carbon nanotubes and Co 3 O 4 decorated ZnO for enhanced photoelectrochemical water oxidation. Journal of Materials Chemistry A 2015, 3 (26) , 13731-13737.
  75. Qiang Wei, Shaodan Wang, Wei Li, Xiaoxue Yuan, Yu Bai. Hydrophobic ZnO-TiO 2 Nanocomposite with Photocatalytic Promoting Self-Cleaning Surface. International Journal of Photoenergy 2015, 2015 , 1-6.
  76. Shengli Huang, Qianqian Yang, Binbin Yu, Dingguo Li, Ruisheng Zhao, Shuping Li, Junyong Kang. Controllable synthesis of branched ZnO/Si nanowire arrays with hierarchical structure. Nanoscale Research Letters 2014, 9 (1)
  77. Jiqing Jiao, Jian Xia, Wenda Qiu, Jianguo Tang, Gaoren Li, Daibin Kuang, Yexiang Tong, Liuping Chen. Hierarchical tree-like heterostructure arrays for enhanced photoeletrochemical activity. Electrochimica Acta 2014, 136 , 217-222.
  78. Yuanbing Mao. Branched nanostructures for photoelectrochemical water splitting. Nanomaterials and Energy 2014, 3 (4) , 103-128.
  79. Wei-Hsuan Hung, Tzu-Ming Chien, An-Ya Lo, Chuan-Ming Tseng, Dongdong Li. Spatially controllable plasmon enhanced water splitting photocurrent in Au/TiO 2 –Fe 2 O 3 cocatalyst system. RSC Adv. 2014, 4 (86) , 45710-45714.
  80. Jing Wang, Xiuying Wang, Xiaoli Dong, Xiufang Zhang, Hongchao Ma, Xu Fei. Multilayered TiO 2 @SnO 2 hollow nanostructures: facile synthesis and enhanced photocatalytic performance. RSC Adv. 2014, 4 (103) , 59503-59507.