Bromate Formation from Bromide Oxidation by the UV/Persulfate Process

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Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong
*Phone: (852)2358 7885. Fax: (852)2358 1534. E-mail: [email protected]
Cite this: Environ. Sci. Technol. 2012, 46, 16, 8976–8983
Publication Date (Web):July 26, 2012
https://doi.org/10.1021/es300658u
Copyright © 2012 American Chemical Society
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Abstract

Bromate formation from bromide oxidation by the UV/persulfate process was investigated, along with changes in pH, persulfate dosages, and bromide concentrations in ultrapure water and in bromide-spiked real water. In general, the bromate formation increased with increasing persulfate dosage and bromide concentration. The bromate formation was initiated and primarily driven by sulfate radicals (SO4•–) and involved the formation of hypobromous acid/hypobromite (HOBr/OBr) as an intermediate and bromate as the final product. Under the test conditions, the rate of the first step driven by SO4•– is slower than that of the second step. Direct UV photolysis of HOBr/OBr to form bromate and the photolysis of bromate are insignificant. The bromate formation was similar for pH 4–7 but decreased over 90% with increasing pH from 7 to above 9. Less bromate was formed in the real water sample than in ultrapure water, which was primarily attributable to the presence of natural organic matter that reacts with bromine atoms, HOBr/OBr and SO4•–. The extent of bromate formation and degradation of micropollutants are nevertheless coupled processes unless intermediate bromine species are consumed by NOM in real water.

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