Disinfection of Ballast Water with Iron Activated Persulfate

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Institute of Environmental Health, Division of Environmental and Biomolecular Systems, Oregon Health & Science University, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, Oregon 97239-3098, United States
Department of Environmental Education, Sunchon National University, Sunchon, Jeonnam, 540-950, South Korea
*E-mail: [email protected]. Phone: 503-748-7679. Fax: 503-748-1273.
Cite this: Environ. Sci. Technol. 2013, 47, 20, 11717–11725
Publication Date (Web):September 11, 2013
https://doi.org/10.1021/es402508k
Copyright © 2013 American Chemical Society
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Abstract

The treatment of ballast water carried onboard ships is critical to reduce the spread of nonindigenous aquatic organisms that potentially include noxious and harmful taxa. We tested the efficacy of persulfate (peroxydisulfate, S2O82–, PS) activated with zerovalent iron (Fe0) as a chemical biocide against two taxa of marine phytoplankton grown in bench-scale, batch cultures: the diatom, Pseudonitzshia delicatissima and the green alga, Dunaliella tertiolecta. After testing a range of PS concentrations (0–4 mM activated PS) and exposure times (1–7 days), we determined that a dosage of 4 mM of activated PS was required to inactivate cells from both species, as indicated by reduced or halted growth and a reduction in photosynthetic performance. Longer exposure times were required to fully inactivate D. tertiolecta (7 days) compared to P. delicatissima (5 days). Under these conditions, no recovery was observed upon placing cells from the exposed cultures into fresh media lacking biocide. The results demonstrate that activated PS is an effective chemical biocide against species of marine phytoplankton. The lack of harmful byproducts produced during application makes PS an attractive alternative to other biocides currently in use for ballast water treatments and merits further testing at a larger scale.

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(i) Determination of the rates of persulfate decay at different temperatures and in different aqueous media (distilled water, artificial ocean water, natural ocean water), (ii) comparison of the activation of persulfate by temperature versus zerovalent metals, iron (Fe0) and zinc (Zn0), (iii) pH changes in algal cultures grown on f/2 seawater media (with NaHCO3 as the main buffer) treated with PS or PS/Fe0 at varying concentrations for the marine diatom Pseudonitzschia delicatissima and the marine green alga Dunaliella tertiolecta, (iv) data showing the negative effect of Tris buffer on phytoplankton growth at high concentrations in cultures of P. delicatissima, and (v) effects of Fe(II) toxicity on phytoplankton growth in P. delicatissima. This material is available free of charge via the Internet at http://pubs.acs.org.

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