Formation of Brominated Disinfection Byproducts from Natural Organic Matter Isolates and Model Compounds in a Sulfate Radical-Based Oxidation Process

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Department of Environmental Science, College of Tourism and Environment, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710062, PR China
Water Desalination and Reuse Center, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal 4700, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
§ Curtin Water Quality Research Centre, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia 6845
*Phone: +61 8 9266 9793. E-mail: [email protected]; [email protected]
Cite this: Environ. Sci. Technol. 2014, 48, 24, 14534–14542
Publication Date (Web):November 25, 2014
https://doi.org/10.1021/es503255j
Copyright © 2014 American Chemical Society
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Abstract

A sulfate radical-based advanced oxidation process (SR-AOP) has received increasing application interest for the removal of water/wastewater contaminants. However, limited knowledge is available on its side effects. This study investigated the side effects in terms of the production of total organic bromine (TOBr) and brominated disinfection byproducts (Br-DBPs) in the presence of bromide ion and organic matter in water. Sulfate radical was generated by heterogeneous catalytic activation of peroxymonosulfate. Isolated natural organic matter (NOM) fractions as well as low molecular weight (LMW) compounds were used as model organic matter. Considerable amounts of TOBr were produced by SR-AOP, where bromoform (TBM) and dibromoacetic acid (DBAA) were identified as dominant Br-DBPs. In general, SR-AOP favored the formation of DBAA, which is quite distinct from bromination with HOBr/OBr (more TBM production). SR-AOP experimental results indicate that bromine incorporation is distributed among both hydrophobic and hydrophilic NOM fractions. Studies on model precursors reveal that LMW acids are reactive TBM precursors (citric acid > succinic acid > pyruvic acid > maleic acid). High DBAA formation from citric acid, aspartic acid, and asparagine was observed; meanwhile aspartic acid and asparagine were the major precursors of dibromoacetonitrile and dibromoacetamide, respectively.

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