Enhanced Decolorization of Orange II Solutions by the Fe(II)–Sulfite System under Xenon Lamp Irradiation

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Department of Environmental Science, Hubei Key Lab of Biomass Resource Chemistry and Environmental Biotechnology, School of Resources and Environmental Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079, P. R. China
Department of Environmental Sciences, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, 325000, P. R. China
*Tel: 86-27-68778511. Fax: 86-27-68778511. E-mail: [email protected]; [email protected]
Cite this: Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2013, 52, 30, 10089–10094
Publication Date (Web):July 5, 2013
https://doi.org/10.1021/ie400469u
Copyright © 2013 American Chemical Society
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Abstract

Decolorization of Orange II by a ferrous sulfite system in aqueous solutions under a xenon lamp (350W) was investigated to determine the enhancement of decolorization efficiency under UV–vis irradiation. Orange II (10 mg L–1) was efficiently decolorized at an initial pH of 6.1 under irradiation (84% efficiency at 60 min), whereas only 15% efficiency was achieved without irradiation. Although 4 was the optimum pH for enhancing the decolorization rate by irradiation, the enhancement was more significant at an initial pH near neutral. Concentration ratios of Fe(II) to sulfite higher than the optimum ratio (about 1:10) could inhibit the decolorization rate via the scavenging effect of sulfate or hydroxyl radicals. Semibatch experiments with multiple additions of Fe(II), sulfite, and Fe(II)–sulfite, respectively, showed that sulfite was more important in improving the decolorization efficiency of Orange II at higher concentration. However, removal of total organic carbon during the semibatch reaction by the Fe(II)–sulfite system under irradiation was as poor (<10%) as that without irradiation. This result implies that the conjugated chromophore in Orange II was partly but easily transformed into achromatic products mainly through electron transfer with sulfate radicals. In conclusion, UV–vis irradiation could greatly accelerate the decolorization of Orange II solutions by Fe(II)–sulfite system, and extend the initial working pH to near-neutral values. These attributes make the light-coupled Fe(II)–sulfite system a more powerful system (i.e., photo-Fe(II)–sulfite system) for the decolorization of Orange II.

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Table of formula and structure of Orange II, table of concentrations of FeHSO3+, Fe2+, and HSO3 in solutions, figure of the photochemical reactor, figure of the emission spectrum of xenon lamp with a glass jacket of cooling water used in this study, the UV–vis absorption spectra of Fe(II), sulfite and Fe(II)–sulfite at pHini = 4 and 6, variations of pH and DO in the Fe(II)–sulfite system, species distribution, as well as results of semibatch experiments without irradiation and TOC removal in semibatch experiments in the photo-Fe(II)–sulfite system. This material is available free of charge via the Internet at http://pubs.acs.org.

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