Tuning of Capacitance Behavior of NiO Using Anionic, Cationic, and Nonionic Surfactants by Hydrothermal Synthesis

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Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036, India
* To whom correspondence should be addressed. Tel: +91 44 2257 4226. Fax: +91 44 2257 0545. E-mail: [email protected]
Cite this: J. Phys. Chem. C 2010, 114, 11, 5203–5210
Publication Date (Web):February 25, 2010
Copyright © 2010 American Chemical Society
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In this work, NiO powders with a spherical morphology were synthesized by a simple hydrothermal technique using organic surfactants as templates and urea as the hydrolysis controlling agent. The effect of cationic (cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide), anionic (sodium dodecyl sulfate), and nonionic (Triton X-100) surfactants for tuning the surface area, pore size, pore volume, and electrochemical properties of NiO powders was investigated. The NiO powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, the Brunauer−Emmett−Teller method, cyclic voltammetry, chronopotentiometry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. We observed that the charge-storage mechanism in our NiO-based electrodes is significantly Faradic in nature rather than capacitive type. The ionic nature of the surfactant used in the preparation of NiO powders shows a considerable effect on their capacitance behavior. The specific capacitance values were found to increase in the order of NiO-T (144 F g−1) < NiO-C (239 F g−1) < NiO-S (411 F g−1) at a current density of 200 mA g−1 in 2 M KOH aqueous electrolyte solution. The NiO-S sample exhibits the highest surface redox reactivity and shows the specific capacitance of 235 F g−1 over 100 cycles at a current density of 500 mA g−1 in a life cycle test.

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