Living Anionic Surface-Initiated Polymerization (LASIP) of a Polymer on Silica Nanoparticles

View Author Information
Department of Chemistry, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294
Department of Chemistry, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996-1600
Cite this: Langmuir 2002, 18, 8, 3324–3331
Publication Date (Web):March 22, 2002
Copyright © 2002 American Chemical Society
Article Views
Read OnlinePDF (206 KB)


To demonstrate living anionic surface-initiated polymerization (LASIP) on silica nanoparticles, the initiator precursor 1,1-diphenylethylene (DPE) was functionalized with alkyldimethylchlorosilane and grafted onto silica particle surfaces. n-BuLi was used to activate the DPE, which allowed the anionic polymerization of the styrene monomer to proceed in benzene solution. A high-vacuum reactor was used to allow polymerization from the surface of silica particles under anhydrous solution conditions. The dispersion of the DPE functionalized silica particles showed a distinct red color indicating an activated nanoparticle−DPE−n-BuLi complex suitable for anionic polymerization. The degree and mechanism of polymerization were determined based on characterization of the grafted and detached polystyrene chains using thermogravimetric analysis, size exclusion chromatography, NMR, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In addition, atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to characterize the polymer-coated nanoparticles. The importance of activation of the grafted initiator, control of aggregation, and removal of the excess n-BuLi for high molecular weight formation is emphasized. While the polydispersities are broader compared to those obtained by solution polymerization of a free initiator, a living anionic polymerization mechanism is still observed.


 Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed. R. Advincula ([email protected]) and J. Mays ([email protected]).

Cited By

This article is cited by 138 publications.

  1. Thomas G. Pattison, Alexander E. Hess, Noel Arellano, Nicholas Lanzillo, Son Nguyen, Holt Bui, Charles Rettner, Hoa Truong, Alexander Friz, Teya Topuria, Anthony Fong, Brian Hughes, Andy T. Tek, Anuja DeSilva, Robert D. Miller, Greg G. Qiao, Rudy J. Wojtecki. Surface Initiated Polymer Thin Films for the Area Selective Deposition and Etching of Metal Oxides. ACS Nano 2020, 14 (4) , 4276-4288.
  2. Paweł Chmielarz, Jiajun Yan, Pawel Krys, Yi Wang, Zongyu Wang, Michael R. Bockstaller, and Krzysztof Matyjaszewski . Synthesis of Nanoparticle Copolymer Brushes via Surface-Initiated seATRP. Macromolecules 2017, 50 (11) , 4151-4159.
  3. Farid Khelifa, Sergey Ershov, Youssef Habibi, Rony Snyders, and Philippe Dubois . Free-Radical-Induced Grafting from Plasma Polymer Surfaces. Chemical Reviews 2016, 116 (6) , 3975-4005.
  4. Masanao Sato, Tomoki Kato, Tomoyuki Ohishi, Ryohei Ishige, Noboru Ohta, Kevin L. White, Tomoyasu Hirai, and Atsushi Takahara . Precise Synthesis of Poly(methyl methacrylate) Brush with Well-Controlled Stereoregularity Using a Surface-Initiated Living Anionic Polymerization Method. Macromolecules 2016, 49 (6) , 2071-2076.
  5. Benedikt S. Soller, Stephan Salzinger, and Bernhard Rieger . Rare Earth Metal-Mediated Precision Polymerization of Vinylphosphonates and Conjugated Nitrogen-Containing Vinyl Monomers. Chemical Reviews 2016, 116 (4) , 1993-2022.
  6. Qiyi Chen, Al de Leon, and Rigoberto C. Advincula . Inorganic–Organic Thiol–ene Coated Mesh for Oil/Water Separation. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2015, 7 (33) , 18566-18573.
  7. Al de Leon and Rigoberto C. Advincula . Reversible Superhydrophilicity and Superhydrophobicity on a Lotus-Leaf Pattern. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2014, 6 (24) , 22666-22672.
  8. Anne-Claire Ferrandez, Stève Baranton, Janick Bigarré, Pierrick Buvat, and Christophe Coutanceau . Chemical Functionalization of Carbon Supported Metal Nanoparticles by Ionic Conductive Polymer via the “Grafting From” Method. Chemistry of Materials 2013, 25 (19) , 3797-3807.
  9. Bizan N. Balzer, Markus Gallei, Katrin Sondergeld, Markus Schindler, Peter Müller-Buschbaum, Matthias Rehahn, and Thorsten Hugel . Cohesion Mechanisms of Polystyrene-Based Thin Polymer Films. Macromolecules 2013, 46 (18) , 7406-7414.
  10. Subhra Jana, Ji Woong Chang, and Robert M. Rioux . Synthesis and Modeling of Hollow Intermetallic Ni–Zn Nanoparticles Formed by the Kirkendall Effect. Nano Letters 2013, 13 (8) , 3618-3625.
  11. Qingjiao Duan, Jian Zhang, Jia Tian, and Hanying Zhao . Silica Nanorings on the Surfaces of Layered Silicate. Langmuir 2011, 27 (21) , 13212-13219.
  12. Daniel Horák, Tetiana Shagotova, Nataliya Mitina, Miroslava Trchová, Nataliya Boiko, Michal Babič, Rostyslav Stoika, Jana Kovářová, Orest Hevus, Milan J. Beneš, Olga Klyuchivska, Petr Holler, and Alexander Zaichenko . Surface-Initiated Polymerization of 2-Hydroxyethyl Methacrylate from Heterotelechelic Oligoperoxide-Coated γ-Fe2O3 Nanoparticles and their Engulfment by Mammalian Cells. Chemistry of Materials 2011, 23 (10) , 2637-2649.
  13. Nelly Durand, David Mariot, Bruno Améduri, Bernard Boutevin, and François Ganachaud . Tailored Covalent Grafting of Hexafluoropropylene Oxide Oligomers onto Silica Nanoparticles: Toward Thermally Stable, Hydrophobic, and Oleophobic Nanocomposites. Langmuir 2011, 27 (7) , 4057-4067.
  14. Narayan Mukherjee, Dattatray Wavhal and Richard B. Timmons. Composites of Plasma Surface Functionalized Barium Titanate Nanoparticles Covalently Attached to Epoxide Matrices: Synthesis and Evaluation. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2010, 2 (2) , 397-407.
  15. Eva-Maria Rosenbauer, Katharina Landfester and Anna Musyanovych . Surface-Active Monomer as a Stabilizer for Polyurea Nanocapsules Synthesized via Interfacial Polyaddition in Inverse Miniemulsion. Langmuir 2009, 25 (20) , 12084-12091.
  16. Wolfgang H. Binder, Ronald Zirbs, Doris Machl and Markus Gahleitner . Grafting Polyisobutylene from Nanoparticle Surfaces: Concentration and Surface Effects on Livingness. Macromolecules 2009, 42 (19) , 7379-7387.
  17. Hua Zou, Shishan Wu and Jian Shen. Polymer/Silica Nanocomposites: Preparation, Characterization, Properties, and Applications. Chemical Reviews 2008, 108 (9) , 3893-3957.
  18. Mukesh Agrawal,, Andrij Pich,, Smrati Gupta,, Nikolaos E. Zafeiropoulos,, Paul Simon, and, Manfred Stamm. Synthesis of Novel Tantalum Oxide Sub-micrometer Hollow Spheres with Tailored Shell Thickness. Langmuir 2008, 24 (3) , 1013-1018.
  19. Qian Yang,, Jing Tian,, Meng-Xin Hu, and, Zhi-Kang Xu. Construction of a Comb-like Glycosylated Membrane Surface by a Combination of UV-Induced Graft Polymerization and Surface-Initiated ATRP. Langmuir 2007, 23 (12) , 6684-6690.
  20. Peng Liu and, Tingmei Wang. Preparation of Well-Defined Star Polymer from Hyperbranched Macroinitiator Based Attapulgite by Surface-Initiated Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization Technique. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 2007, 46 (1) , 97-102.
  21. Xinjian Cheng,, Min Chen,, Limin Wu, and, Guangxin Gu. Novel and Facile Method for the Preparation of Monodispersed Titania Hollow Spheres. Langmuir 2006, 22 (8) , 3858-3863.
  22. D. O. H. Teare,, W. C. E. Schofield,, R. P. Garrod, and, J. P. S. Badyal. Rapid Polymer Brush Growth by TEMPO-Mediated Controlled Free-Radical Polymerization from Swollen Plasma Deposited Poly(maleic anhydride) Initiator Surfaces. Langmuir 2005, 21 (23) , 10818-10824.
  23. Lei Zheng,, Anne Feng Xie, and, John T. Lean. Polystyrene Nanoparticles with Anionically Polymerized Polybutadiene Brushes. Macromolecules 2004, 37 (26) , 9954-9962.
  24. Ryosuke Matsuno,, Kazuya Yamamoto,, Hideyuki Otsuka, and, Atsushi Takahara. Polystyrene- and Poly(3-vinylpyridine)-Grafted Magnetite Nanoparticles Prepared through Surface-Initiated Nitroxide-Mediated Radical Polymerization. Macromolecules 2004, 37 (6) , 2203-2209.
  25. C. Bartholome,, E. Beyou,, E. Bourgeat-Lami,, P. Chaumont, and, N. Zydowicz. Nitroxide-Mediated Polymerizations from Silica Nanoparticle Surfaces:  “Graft from” Polymerization of Styrene Using a Triethoxysilyl-Terminated Alkoxyamine Initiator. Macromolecules 2003, 36 (21) , 7946-7952.
  26. Xiaowu Fan,, Chuanjun Xia,, Timothy Fulghum,, Mi-Kyoung Park,, Jason Locklin, and, Rigoberto C. Advincula. Polymer Brushes Grafted from Clay Nanoparticles Adsorbed on a Planar Substrate by Free Radical Surface-Initiated Polymerization. Langmuir 2003, 19 (3) , 916-923.
  27. Rigoberto Advincula,, Qingye Zhou,, Mikyoung Park,, Shuangxi Wang,, Jimmy Mays,, George Sakellariou,, Stergios Pispas, and, Nikos Hadjichristidis. Polymer Brushes by Living Anionic Surface Initiated Polymerization on Flat Silicon (SiOx) and Gold Surfaces:  Homopolymers and Block Copolymers. Langmuir 2002, 18 (22) , 8672-8684.
  28. Ran Yang, Xiaodan Wang, Shunjie Yan, Alideertu Dong, Shifang Luan, Jinghua Yin. Advances in design and biomedical application of hierarchical polymer brushes. Progress in Polymer Science 2021, 118 , 101409.
  29. Javad Khodabakhshi, Hossein Mahdavi. Silica‐poly(2‐ethyl‐2‐oxazoline) hairy nanoparticle with high organic content as a material for anticorrosion nanocomposite coatings. Journal of Applied Polymer Science 2021, 138 (8) , 49873.
  30. Mohsin Najam, Murid Hussain, Zulfiqar Ali, Ibrahim M Maafa, Parveen Akhter, Khaliq Majeed, Ashfaq Ahmed, Nasir Shehzad. Influence of silica materials on synthesis of elastomer nanocomposites: A review. Journal of Elastomers & Plastics 2020, 52 (8) , 747-771.
  31. Alireza Kavand, Christian Blanck, Frédéric Przybilla, Yves Mély, Nicolas Anton, Thierry Vandamme, Christophe A. Serra, Delphine Chan-Seng. Investigating the growth of hyperbranched polymers by self-condensing vinyl RAFT copolymerization from the surface of upconversion nanoparticles. Polymer Chemistry 2020, 11 (26) , 4313-4325.
  32. Kohji Ohno. Hairy Particles Synthesized by Surface-Initiated Living Radical Polymerization. 2019,,, 379-397.
  33. Katarína Mosnáčková, Jozef Kollár, Yi-Shen Huang, Chih-Feng Huang, Jaroslav Mosnáček. Synthesis Routes of Functionalized Nanoparticles. 2019,,, 1-46.
  34. Tomoyasu Hirai, Masanao Sato, Tomoki Kato, Hitoshi Shimamoto, Kiyu Uno, Nobuyuki Otozawa, Atsushi Takahara. Preparation of polymer brushes with well-controlled stereoregularity and evaluation of their functional properties. Polymer Journal 2018, 50 (10) , 931-939.
  35. Chunliang Lu, Marek W. Urban. Stimuli-responsive polymer nano-science: Shape anisotropy, responsiveness, applications. Progress in Polymer Science 2018, 78 , 24-46.
  36. Xiaolin Liu, Ying Yang, Marek W. Urban. Stimuli-Responsive Polymeric Nanoparticles. Macromolecular Rapid Communications 2017, 38 (13) , 1700030.
  37. M. N. Zahornyi. Nanosized Powders as Reinforcement for Photoactive Composites (Overview). Powder Metallurgy and Metal Ceramics 2017, 56 (3-4) , 130-147.
  38. Umut Ugur Ozkose, Cagatay Altinkok, Ozgur Yilmaz, Onur Alpturk, Mehmet Atilla Tasdelen. In-situ preparation of poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline)/clay nanocomposites via living cationic ring-opening polymerization. European Polymer Journal 2017, 88 , 586-593.
  39. Tomoyasu Hirai, Motoyasu Kobayashi, Atsushi Takahara. Control of the primary and secondary structure of polymer brushes by surface-initiated living/controlled polymerization. Polymer Chemistry 2017, 8 (36) , 5456-5468.
  40. Guangchang Zhou, Vernecia Person, Ishrat M. Khan. Hairy Nanoparticles with Hard Polystyrene Cores and Soft Polydimethylsiloxane Shells: One‐Pot Synthesis by Living Anionic Polymerization and Characterization. Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics 2016, 217 (23) , 2601-2610.
  41. Galder Kortaberria. Chapter 2 Nanocomposites Based on Block Copolymers and Metallic Nanoparticles Grafted with Polymer Brushes. 2016,,, 25-68.
  42. Mojtaba Abbasian, Lida Ahmadkhani. Synthesis of conductive PSt-g-PANi/TiO 2 nanocomposites by metal catalyzed and chemical oxidative polymerization. Designed Monomers and Polymers 2016, 19 (7) , 585-595.
  43. Haicun Yang, Hongting Pu, Fanghong Gong. Attapulgite grafted with polystyrene via a simultaneous reverse and normal initiation atom transfer radical polymerization. Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry 2016, 54 (11) , 1508-1516.
  44. Qian Yu, Linnea K. Ista, Renpeng Gu, Stefan Zauscher, Gabriel P. López. Nanopatterned polymer brushes: conformation, fabrication and applications. Nanoscale 2016, 8 (2) , 680-700.
  45. Vincenzo Contaldi, Maria Giovanna Pastore Carbone, Ernesto Di Maio, Anastasios C. Manikas, Paolo Antonio Netti. Easy-to-fill asymmetric polymeric micro-reservoirs. RSC Advances 2016, 6 (68) , 64140-64146.
  46. Tomoyasu HIRAI, Masanao SATO, Atsushi TAKAHARA. Preparation of Novel Functional Interface using Polymethyl Methacry late(PMMA) Brush with Well-Controlled Stereoregularity. Journal of The Adhesion Society of Japan 2016, 52 (1) , 16-21.
  47. Tomoyasu HIRAI. Design and Fabrication of Polymer Interfaces and Evaluation of Their Molecular Aggregation Structure. KOBUNSHI RONBUNSHU 2016, 73 (5) , 428-441.
  48. N. Chehata, A. Ltaief, E. Beyou, B. Ilahi, B. Salem, T. Baron, P. Gentile, H. Maaref, A. Bouazizi. Functionalized silicon nanowires/conjugated polymer hybrid solar cells: Optical, electrical and morphological characterizations. Journal of Luminescence 2015, 168 , 315-324.
  49. Ewa Krysiak, Aleksandra Wypych-Puszkarz, Kamil Krysiak, Grzegorz Nowaczyk, Monika Makrocka-Rydzyk, Stefan Jurga, Jacek Ulanski. Core–shell system based on titanium dioxide with elevated value of dielectric permittivity: Synthesis and characterization. Synthetic Metals 2015, 209 , 150-157.
  50. Zhong Li, Durairaj Baskaran. Surface-Initiated Anionic Polymerization from Nanomaterials. 2015,,, 495-537.
  51. Jiakang Min, Yichao Lin, Jun Zheng, Tao Tang. A novel strategy to synthesize well-defined PS brushes on silica particles by combination of lithium–iodine exchange (LIE) and surface-initiated living anionic polymerization (SI-LAP). Chemical Communications 2015, 51 (27) , 5921-5924.
  52. Lei Wu, Ulrich Glebe, Alexander Böker. Surface-initiated controlled radical polymerizations from silica nanoparticles, gold nanocrystals, and bionanoparticles. Polymer Chemistry 2015, 6 (29) , 5143-5184.
  53. Songling Wang, Stephen V. Kershaw, Guisheng Li, Michael K. H. Leung. The self-assembly synthesis of tungsten oxide quantum dots with enhanced optical properties. Journal of Materials Chemistry C 2015, 3 (14) , 3280-3285.
  54. Benedikt S. Soller, Ning Zhang, Bernhard Rieger. Catalytic Precision Polymerization: Rare Earth Metal-Mediated Synthesis of Homopolymers, Block Copolymers, and Polymer Brushes. Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics 2014, 215 (20) , 1946-1962.
  55. Yan Jiang, Yuan Liang, Hongwen Zhang, Weiwei Zhang, Shanshan Tu. Preparation and biocompatibility of grafted functional β-cyclodextrin copolymers from the surface of PET films. Materials Science and Engineering: C 2014, 41 , 1-7.
  56. Jun Zheng, Yanhui Wang, Lin Ye, Yichao Lin, Tao Tang, Jidong Zhang. Surface Coordination Polymerization of Ethylene by Hydrozirconation-Immobilized Metallocene. Macromolecular Rapid Communications 2014, 35 (13) , 1198-1203.
  57. Xiaowu Fan, Chuanjun Xia, Rigoberto C. Advincula. Polymer–Clay Nanocomposites and Polymer Brushes. 2014,,, 3788-3799.
  58. Kevin Sill, Seunghoo Yoo, Todd Emrick. Polymer–Nanoparticle Composites. 2014,,, 3830-3843.
  59. Frank Deubel, Marin Steenackers, José A. Garrido, Martin Stutzmann, Rainer Jordan. Semiconductor/Polymer Nanocomposites of Acrylates and Nanocrystalline Silicon by Laser-Induced Thermal Polymerization. Macromolecular Materials and Engineering 2013, 298 (11) , 1160-1165.
  60. Amal Amin, Rajarshi Sarkar, Charles N. Moorefield, George R. Newkome. Synthesis of polymer–clay nanocomposites of some vinyl monomers by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization. Designed Monomers and Polymers 2013, 16 (6) , 528-536.
  61. Hossein Afsharian-Moghaddam, Vahid Haddadi-Asl. Direct synthesis of polymer-grafted inorganic hybrids via reversible chain transfer catalyzed polymerization. Iranian Polymer Journal 2013, 22 (10) , 757-766.
  62. Onur Kir, Wolfgang H. Binder. Living anionic surface initiated polymerization (LASIP) of isoprene from silica nano- and glass particles. European Polymer Journal 2013, 49 (10) , 3078-3088.
  63. Hongbo Liang, Xiaofeng Li, Lei Xiong, Shengmei Huang. Synthesis and Characterization of Titania Nanoparticles Functionalized With Hyperbranched Polymer Via Self-Condensing Vinyl Polymerization. Synthesis and Reactivity in Inorganic, Metal-Organic, and Nano-Metal Chemistry 2013, 43 (8) , 1034-1039.
  64. Chang J. Kim, Katrin Sondergeld, Markus Mazurowski, Markus Gallei, Matthias Rehahn, Tinka Spehr, Henrich Frielinghaus, Bernd Stühn. Synthesis and characterization of polystyrene chains on the surface of silica nanoparticles: comparison of SANS, SAXS, and DLS results. Colloid and Polymer Science 2013, 291 (9) , 2087-2099.
  65. Mrinal Bhattacharya, Sunayana Chaudhry. High-performance silica nanoparticle reinforced poly (vinyl alcohol) as templates for bioactive nanocomposites. Materials Science and Engineering: C 2013, 33 (5) , 2601-2610.
  66. A. M. Shanmugharaj, Sung Hun Ryu. Synthesis of poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile) copolymer brushes on silica nanoparticles through surface-initiated polymerization. Iranian Polymer Journal 2013, 22 (4) , 227-236.
  67. Nikhil J. Fernandes, Hilmar Koerner, Emmanuel P. Giannelis, Richard A. Vaia. Hairy nanoparticle assemblies as one-component functional polymer nanocomposites: opportunities and challenges. MRS Communications 2013, 3 (1) , 13-29.
  68. I. A. Novakov, N. K. Dang, M. A. Vaniev, N. V. Sidorenko. On the stabilization and methods for modification of nanosize particles used for the preparation of polymer-inorganic nanocomposites. Russian Chemical Bulletin 2013, 62 (2) , 276-284.
  69. Jie Jin, Jinchuan Liu, Xueming Lian, Pingchuan Sun, Hanying Zhao. Dynamic polymer brushes on the surface of silica particles. RSC Advances 2013, 3 (19) , 7023.
  70. Smita Ghosh, Shailesh K. Goswami, Lon J. Mathias. Surface modification of nano-silica with amides and imides for use in polyester nanocomposites. Journal of Materials Chemistry A 2013, 1 (19) , 6073.
  71. Jianying Ma, Mangeng Lu, Chunlei Cao, Huixuan Zhang. Preparation and Characterization of PMMA/MMT Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Materials via RAFT Polymerization. Journal of Macromolecular Science, Part A 2013, 50 (6) , 653-660.
  72. M. Salami-Kalajahi, V. Haddadi-Asl, H. Roghani-Mamaqani. Study of kinetics and properties of polystyrene/silica nanocomposites prepared via in situ free radical and reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerizations. Scientia Iranica 2012, 19 (6) , 2004-2011.
  73. Libang Feng, Jiaofeng Ye, Hongxia Zhang, Xiaohu Qiang, Yanping Wang. Synthesis and Polymerization Kinetics of Polystyrene Grafting using Azo-groups Bounded SiO 2 as an Initiator. Journal of Macromolecular Science, Part A 2012, 49 (9) , 729-735.
  74. Xuefeng Bai, Xuelian He, Jun Zhang, Xiao Zhu, Haiyang Zhang, Ruihua Cheng, Boping Liu. Improvement of interfacial interaction, dispersion, and properties of chlorosulfonated polyethylene/sio2 nanocomposites using CSPE-g-Sio2 nanoparticles synthesized under ultrasonics. Polymer Composites 2012, 33 (6) , 940-950.
  75. Jianhui Liu, Na Feng, Suqin Chang, Hongliang Kang. Preparation and characterization of poly(glycidyl methacrylate) grafted from magnesium hydroxide particles via SI-ATRP. Applied Surface Science 2012, 258 (16) , 6127-6135.
  76. Mehdi Salami-Kalajahi, Vahid Haddadi-Asl, Said Rahimi-Razin, Farid Behboodi-Sadabad, Mohammad Najafi, Hossein Roghani-Mamaqani. A study on the properties of PMMA/silica nanocomposites prepared via RAFT polymerization. Journal of Polymer Research 2012, 19 (2)
  77. Virginie Audonnet, Laurent Malaquin, Jean-Louis Viovy. Polymeric coatings on micro- and nanometric particles for bioapplications. Bioanalytical Reviews 2011, 3 (2-4) , 41-66.
  78. Stefanie M. Gravano, Timothy E. Patten. Hybrid Organic Inorganic Objects. 2011,,, 1179-1207.
  79. Michaël Alexandre, Philippe Dubois. Nanocomposites. 2011,,, 2033-2070.
  80. . Shape Memory Polymer Nanocomposites. 2011,,, 147-184.
  81. Qian Zhang, Wei Li, Shouxin Liu. Controlled fabrication of nanosized TiO2 hollow sphere particles via acid catalytic hydrolysis/hydrothermal treatment. Powder Technology 2011, 212 (1) , 145-150.
  82. Libang Feng, Jiaofeng Ye, Xiaohu Qiang, Hongxia Zhang. Syntheses of an azo-group-bound silica initiator and silica-polystyrene composites. Journal of Applied Polymer Science 2011, 121 (1) , 454-461.
  83. Zhijun Chen, Qingxiang Yang, Kai Peng, Yabing Guo. Surface-initiated nitroxide-mediated radical polymerization of 4-vinylpyridine on magnetite nanoparticles. Journal of Applied Polymer Science 2011, 119 (6) , 3582-3590.
  84. Jing Hu, Min Chen, Xiaosheng Fang, Limin Wu. Fabrication and application of inorganic hollow spheres. Chemical Society Reviews 2011, 40 (11) , 5472.
  85. Feng Zhou, Bo Yu. Polymer Brushes on Surfaces. 2010,,, 175-207.
  86. A. M. Shanmugharaj, Won Seok Choi, Sung Hun Ryu. Synthesis of well-defined polymer brushes on the surface of zinc antimonate nanoparticles through surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization. Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry 2010, 48 (22) , 5092-5099.
  87. Kirsty Leong, Yeechi Chen, David J. Masiello, Melvin T. Zin, Marketa Hnilova, Hong Ma, Candan Tamerler, Mehmet Sarikaya, David S. Ginger, Alex K.-Y. Jen. Cooperative Near-Field Surface Plasmon Enhanced Quantum Dot Nanoarrays. Advanced Functional Materials 2010, 20 (16) , 2675-2682.
  88. Jung Tae Park, Jin Ah Seo, Sung Hoon Ahn, Jong Hak Kim, Sang Wook Kang. Surface modification of silica nanoparticles with hydrophilic polymers. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry 2010, 16 (4) , 517-522.
  89. Andrzej Rybak, Micheline Warde, Emmanuel Beyou, Philippe Chaumont, Mikhael Bechelany, Arnaud Brioude, Bérangère Toury, David Cornu, Philippe Miele, Benoit Guiffard, Laurence Seveyrat, Daniel Guyomar. Synthesis of polystyrene coated SiC nanowires as fillers in a polyurethane matrix for electromechanical conversion. Nanotechnology 2010, 21 (14) , 145610.
  90. Libang Feng, Hui Li, Meijuan Yang, Xinwei Wang. Synthesis of SiO2/polystyrene hybrid particles via an esterification method. Colloid and Polymer Science 2010, 288 (6) , 673-680.
  91. Radoslaw Zaleski, Wojciech Stefaniak, Malgorzata Maciejewska, Jacek Goworek. Porosity evolution of VP-DVB/MCM-41 nanocomposite. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 2010, 343 (1) , 134-140.
  92. Demetra S. Achilleos, Maria Vamvakaki. End-Grafted Polymer Chains onto Inorganic Nano-Objects. Materials 2010, 3 (3) , 1981-2026.
  93. Andreas Kaiser, Silvio Dutz, Annette M. Schmidt. Kinetic studies of surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization in the synthesis of magnetic fluids. Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry 2009, 47 (24) , 7012-7020.
  94. Mario Gauthier, Abdul Munam. Cross-linked latex particles grafted with polyisoprene as model rubber-compatible fillers. Polymer 2009, 50 (25) , 6032-6042.
  95. Mathieu Joubert, Abdel Khoukh, Jean-François Tranchant, Fabrice Morvan, Laurent Billon. Hybrid Aluminum Colored Pigments Based on Gradient Copolymers Design. Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics 2009, 210 (18) , 1544-1555.
  96. Francis Pardal, Vincent Lapinte, Jean-Jacques Robin. Modification of silica nanoparticles by grafting of copolymers containing organosilane and fluorine moities. Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry 2009, 47 (18) , 4617-4628.
  97. Libang Feng, Lin He, Yingxia Ma, Yulong Wang. Grafting poly(methyl methacrylate) onto silica nanoparticle surfaces via a facile esterification reaction. Materials Chemistry and Physics 2009, 116 (1) , 158-163.
  98. Van Giang Ngo, Christine Bressy, Christine Leroux, André Margaillan. Synthesis of hybrid TiO2 nanoparticles with well-defined poly(methyl methacrylate) and poly(tert-butyldimethylsilyl methacrylate) via the RAFT process. Polymer 2009, 50 (14) , 3095-3102.
  99. Zhen Lu, Jiyi Wang, Qing Li, Li Chen, Su Chen. Controllable synthesis of nanosilica surface-grafted PMMA macromonomers via catalytic chain transfer polymerization. European Polymer Journal 2009, 45 (4) , 1072-1079.
  100. Mami Yamada. Synthesis of Organic Shell–Inorganic Core Hybrid Nanoparticles by Wet Process and Investigation of Their Advanced Functions. Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan 2009, 82 (2) , 152-170.
Load all citations