Continuous Surface Functionalization of Flame-Made TiO2 Nanoparticles

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Particle Technology Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering, ETH Zurich, Sonneggstrasse 3, CH-8092 Zurich, Switzerland
*Corresponding author: Ph +41 44 632 31 80; Fax +41 44 632 15 95; e-mail [email protected]
†Currently at the Laboratory of Thermodynamics in Emerging Technologies, ETH Zurich.
Cite this: Langmuir 2010, 26, 8, 5815–5822
Publication Date (Web):March 1, 2010
Copyright © 2010 American Chemical Society
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Hydrophilic TiO2 particles made in a flame aerosol reactor were converted in situ to hydrophobic ones by silylation of their surface hydroxyl groups. So the freshly formed titania aerosol was mixed with a fine spray of octyltriethoxysilane (OTES) in water/ethanol solution and functionalized continuously at high temperature. The extent of functionalization and structure of that surface layer were assessed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) coupled to mass spectroscopy (MS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and Raman spectroscopy. Product particles were characterized also by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction, and nitrogen adsorption. The influence of titania specific surface area (SSA) and OTES solution concentration on the functional group surface density was investigated. The titanium dioxide surface was covered with functional groups (up to 2.9 wt %) that were thermally stable up to 300 °C in air at an average density of 2 OTES/nm2. Such surface-functionalized particle suspensions in 2-ethylhexanoic acid and xylene were stable over several weeks. In contrast, as-prepared hydrophilic TiO2 precipitated within days in these solvents.

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FTIR spectra and Raman spectra of FSP-made pure HTiO2, H0.16TiO2, H0.08TiO2, and commercial T805 TiO2. This material is available free of charge via the Internet at

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