Titanium thin films were deposited on glass and indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrates by radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering under varying sputtering parameters as: power, pressure, substrate temperature and target-substrate distance. The crystalline structure, crystallite size and texture coefficients of the films were evaluated in detail. As the evaluation points out, 100 W, 1.33 Pa ambient temperature and 70 mm were determined as the optimum sputtering parameters for intended crystalline structures. Subsequently, electrochemical anodization experiments were performed via varied electrolytes and under various anodization parameters (voltage, time and electrolyte type) in a two-electrode electrochemical cell using the films obtained through the optimized sputtering parameters. The anodized samples were annealed at 450 °C for 1 h in air in order to obtain anatase transformation and the desired crystalline structure. The surface morphologies and the crystalline structures of the anodized films were evaluated through x-ray diffractometer (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), respectively. Finally, the anodization parameters for the formation of TiO2 nanotube arrays were determined as: 35 V and 35 min. in an electrolyte composed of 0.3 wt.-% NH4F – 2 wt.-% water – ethylene glycol.

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mustafa Erol Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Dokuz Eylul University Tinaztepe Campus 35390, Buca-Izmir/Turkey


This study was financially supported by TUBITAK with the project code 115M151. The authors are indebted to the infrastructural support from Dokuz Eylül University, the Center for Production and Applications of Electronic Materials (EMUM) and İzmir Katip Çelebi University Central Research Laboratories (IKCU-MERLAB) where the research was carried out.


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Published Online: 2021-03-31

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