Exploring the Role of Persulfate in the Activation Process: Radical Precursor Versus Electron Acceptor

View Author Information
School of Civil, Environmental, and Architectural Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-701, Korea
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 46241, Korea
§ School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749, Korea
*E-mail: [email protected]. Phone: +82-2-3290-4864. Fax: +82-2-928-7656.
Cite this: Environ. Sci. Technol. 2017, 51, 17, 10090–10099
Publication Date (Web):July 28, 2017
Copyright © 2017 American Chemical Society
Article Views
Read OnlinePDF (2 MB)
Supporting Info (1)»


This study elucidates the mechanism behind persulfate activation by exploring the role of various oxyanions (e.g., peroxymonosulfate, periodate, and peracetate) in two activation systems utilizing iron nanoparticle (nFe0) as the reducing agent and single-wall carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as electron transfer mediators. Since the tested oxyanions serve as both electron acceptors and radical precursors in most cases, oxidative degradation of organics was achievable through one-electron reduction of oxyanions on nFe0 (leading to radical-induced oxidation) and electron transfer mediation from organics to oxyanions on CNTs (leading to oxidative decomposition involving no radical formation). A distinction between degradative reaction mechanisms of the nFe0/oxyanion and CNT/oxyanion systems was made in terms of the oxyanion consumption efficacy, radical scavenging effect, and EPR spectral analysis. Statistical study of substrate-specificity and product distribution implied that the reaction route induced on nFe0 varies depending on the oxyanion (i.e., oxyanion-derived radical), whereas the similar reaction pathway initiates organic oxidation in the CNT/oxyanion system irrespective of the oxyanion type. Chronoamperometric measurements further confirmed electron transfer from organics to oxyanions in the presence of CNTs, which was not observed when applying nFe0 instead.

Supporting Information

Jump To

The Supporting Information is available free of charge on the ACS Publications website at DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.7b02519.

  • Intermediate and product distributions obtained in the course of 4-CP oxidation by the nFe0/oxyanion and CNT/oxyanion systems, TEM images of iron nanoparticles, metal contents in pristine CNTs, TEM images of fresh and used CNTs, Raman spectra of fresh and used CNTs, Raman spectra of CNTs in the short and long wavenumber ranges, effects of surfactants on CNTs-mediating persulfate activation, DLS size distributions of pristine CNTs and CNTs exposed to ultrasound, effect of sonication on persulfate activating capacity of CNTs, sorption test with CNTs, release of chloride ions during 4-CP degradation by the activated oxyanions, rate of oxyanion consumption by nFe0 and CNTs, XPS spectra of fresh and used CNTs, FT-IR spectra of fresh and used CNTs, formation of formaldehyde during methanol oxidation by the activated oxyanions, initial rates of degradation of various organics by the activated oxyanions, combined two-way clustering analysis of kinetic data and degradation intermediate data, with a heat map, for two oxyanion-activating groups, linear sweep voltammograms of nFe0- and CNT-coated carbon paper electrodes, and rates of 4-CP degradation by CNT/PMS in water and in deuterium oxide (PDF)

Terms & Conditions

Most electronic Supporting Information files are available without a subscription to ACS Web Editions. Such files may be downloaded by article for research use (if there is a public use license linked to the relevant article, that license may permit other uses). Permission may be obtained from ACS for other uses through requests via the RightsLink permission system: http://pubs.acs.org/page/copyright/permissions.html.

Cited By

This article is cited by 142 publications.

  1. Banghai Liu, Wanqian Guo, Wenrui Jia, Huazhe Wang, Qishi Si, Qi Zhao, Haichao Luo, Jin Jiang, Nanqi Ren. Novel Nonradical Oxidation of Sulfonamide Antibiotics with Co(II)-Doped g-C3N4-Activated Peracetic Acid: Role of High-Valent Cobalt–Oxo Species. Environmental Science & Technology 2021, 55 (18) , 12640-12651. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.1c04091
  2. Weixue Wang, Yang Liu, Yifan Yue, Huihui Wang, Gong Cheng, Chunyang Gao, Chunlin Chen, Yuejie Ai, Zhe Chen, Xiangke Wang. The Confined Interlayer Growth of Ultrathin Two-Dimensional Fe3O4 Nanosheets with Enriched Oxygen Vacancies for Peroxymonosulfate Activation. ACS Catalysis 2021, 11 (17) , 11256-11265. https://doi.org/10.1021/acscatal.1c03331
  3. Yongsong Ma, Yuxing Gu, Da Jiang, Xuhui Mao, Dihua Wang. Transforming CO2 into Sulfur-Doped Carbon As a High-Efficiency Persulfate Catalyst for the Degradation of 2,4-Dichlorphenol: Influential Factors, Activation Mechanism, and Regeneration of Catalyst. ACS ES&T Water 2021, 1 (8) , 1796-1806. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsestwater.1c00112
  4. Jun Liang, Xiaoguang Duan, Xiaoyun Xu, Kexin Chen, Yue Zhang, Ling Zhao, Hao Qiu, Shaobin Wang, Xinde Cao. Persulfate Oxidation of Sulfamethoxazole by Magnetic Iron-Char Composites via Nonradical Pathways: Fe(IV) Versus Surface-Mediated Electron Transfer. Environmental Science & Technology 2021, 55 (14) , 10077-10086. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.1c01618
  5. Yufei Zhen, Shishu Zhu, Zhiqiang Sun, Yu Tian, Zeng Li, Chen Yang, Jun Ma. Identifying the Persistent Free Radicals (PFRs) Formed as Crucial Metastable Intermediates during Peroxymonosulfate (PMS) Activation by N-Doped Carbonaceous Materials. Environmental Science & Technology 2021, 55 (13) , 9293-9304. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.1c01974
  6. Yangke Long, Jian Dai, Shiyin Zhao, Yiping Su, Zhongying Wang, Zuotai Zhang. Atomically Dispersed Cobalt Sites on Graphene as Efficient Periodate Activators for Selective Organic Pollutant Degradation. Environmental Science & Technology 2021, 55 (8) , 5357-5370. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.0c07794
  7. Jingwen Wang, Ying Wan, Jiaqi Ding, Zongping Wang, Jun Ma, Pengchao Xie, Mark R. Wiesner. Thermal Activation of Peracetic Acid in Aquatic Solution: The Mechanism and Application to Degrade Sulfamethoxazole. Environmental Science & Technology 2020, 54 (22) , 14635-14645. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.0c02061
  8. Shizong Wang, Yong Liu, Jianlong Wang. Peroxymonosulfate Activation by Fe–Co–O-Codoped Graphite Carbon Nitride for Degradation of Sulfamethoxazole. Environmental Science & Technology 2020, 54 (16) , 10361-10369. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.0c03256
  9. Penghui Shao, Shuiping Yu, Xiaoguang Duan, Liming Yang, Hui Shi, Lin Ding, Jiayu Tian, Lixia Yang, Xubiao Luo, Shaobin Wang. Potential Difference Driving Electron Transfer via Defective Carbon Nanotubes toward Selective Oxidation of Organic Micropollutants. Environmental Science & Technology 2020, 54 (13) , 8464-8472. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.0c02645
  10. Ming Zhu, Jie Miao, Daqin Guan, Yijun Zhong, Ran Ran, Shaobin Wang, Wei Zhou, Zongping Shao. Efficient Wastewater Remediation Enabled by Self-Assembled Perovskite Oxide Heterostructures with Multiple Reaction Pathways. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering 2020, 8 (15) , 6033-6042. https://doi.org/10.1021/acssuschemeng.0c00882
  11. Jaesang Lee, Urs von Gunten, Jae-Hong Kim. Persulfate-Based Advanced Oxidation: Critical Assessment of Opportunities and Roadblocks. Environmental Science & Technology 2020, 54 (6) , 3064-3081. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.9b07082
  12. Wei Ren, Liangliang Xiong, Gang Nie, Hui Zhang, Xiaoguang Duan, Shaobin Wang. Insights into the Electron-Transfer Regime of Peroxydisulfate Activation on Carbon Nanotubes: The Role of Oxygen Functional Groups. Environmental Science & Technology 2020, 54 (2) , 1267-1275. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.9b06208
  13. Wei Ren, Liangliang Xiong, Xuehong Yuan, Ziwei Yu, Hui Zhang, Xiaoguang Duan, Shaobin Wang. Activation of Peroxydisulfate on Carbon Nanotubes: Electron-Transfer Mechanism. Environmental Science & Technology 2019, 53 (24) , 14595-14603. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.9b05475
  14. Jiabin Chen, Xuefei Zhou, Peizhe Sun, Yalei Zhang, Ching-Hua Huang. Complexation Enhances Cu(II)-Activated Peroxydisulfate: A Novel Activation Mechanism and Cu(III) Contribution. Environmental Science & Technology 2019, 53 (20) , 11774-11782. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.9b03873
  15. Chiheng Chu, Ji Yang, Dahong Huang, Jianfeng Li, Aiqin Wang, Pedro J. J. Alvarez, Jae-Hong Kim. Cooperative Pollutant Adsorption and Persulfate-Driven Oxidation on Hierarchically Ordered Porous Carbon. Environmental Science & Technology 2019, 53 (17) , 10352-10360. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.9b03067
  16. Yu Chen, Gong Zhang, Qinghua Ji, Huijuan Liu, Jiuhui Qu. Triggering of Low-Valence Molybdenum in Multiphasic MoS2 for Effective Reactive Oxygen Species Output in Catalytic Fenton-like Reactions. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2019, 11 (30) , 26781-26788. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.9b05978
  17. Jonghun Lim, Yang Yang, Michael R. Hoffmann. Activation of Peroxymonosulfate by Oxygen Vacancies-Enriched Cobalt-Doped Black TiO2 Nanotubes for the Removal of Organic Pollutants. Environmental Science & Technology 2019, 53 (12) , 6972-6980. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.9b01449
  18. Guodong Fang, Xiru Chen, Wenhui Wu, Cun Liu, Dionysios D. Dionysiou, Tingting Fan, Yujun Wang, Changyin Zhu, Dongmei Zhou. Mechanisms of Interaction between Persulfate and Soil Constituents: Activation, Free Radical Formation, Conversion, and Identification. Environmental Science & Technology 2018, 52 (24) , 14352-14361. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.8b04766
  19. Changyin Zhu, Fengxiao Zhu, Cun Liu, Ning Chen, Dongmei Zhou, Guodong Fang, Juan Gao. Reductive Hexachloroethane Degradation by S2O8•– with Thermal Activation of Persulfate under Anaerobic Conditions. Environmental Science & Technology 2018, 52 (15) , 8548-8557. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.7b06279
  20. Eun-Tae Yun, Jeong Hoon Lee, Jaesung Kim, Hee-Deung Park, Jaesang Lee. Identifying the Nonradical Mechanism in the Peroxymonosulfate Activation Process: Singlet Oxygenation Versus Mediated Electron Transfer. Environmental Science & Technology 2018, 52 (12) , 7032-7042. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.8b00959
  21. Xiaoguang Duan, Hongqi Sun, Shaobin Wang. Metal-Free Carbocatalysis in Advanced Oxidation Reactions. Accounts of Chemical Research 2018, 51 (3) , 678-687. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.accounts.7b00535
  22. Rui Luo, Junwen Wu, Jing Zhao, Dong Fang, Zongtang Liu, Lin Hu. ZIF-8 derived defect-rich nitrogen-doped carbon with enhanced catalytic activity for efficient non-radical activation of peroxydisulfate. Environmental Research 2022, 204 , 112060. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2021.112060
  23. Yu-Dan Dong, Liang-Qing Zhang, Peng Zhou, Yang Liu, Hao Lin, Gan-Ji Zhong, Gang Yao, Zhong-Ming Li, Bo Lai. Natural cellulose supported carbon nanotubes and Fe3O4 NPs as the efficient peroxydisulfate activator for the removal of bisphenol A: An enhanced non-radical oxidation process. Journal of Hazardous Materials 2022, 423 , 127054. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.127054
  24. Jie Tan, Zhifeng Li, Jie Li, Yuan Meng, Xiaolong Yao, Yuhui Wang, Yong Lu, Tingting Zhang. Visible-light-assisted peroxymonosulfate activation by metal-free bifunctional oxygen-doped graphitic carbon nitride for enhanced degradation of imidacloprid: Role of non-photochemical and photocatalytic activation pathway. Journal of Hazardous Materials 2022, 423 , 127048. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.127048
  25. Fei Liu, Yang Zhang, Shu Wang, Tianyi Gong, Ming Hua, Jieshu Qian, Bingcai Pan. Metal-free biomass with abundant carbonyl groups as efficient catalyst for the activation of peroxymonosulfate and degradation of sulfamethoxazole. Chemical Engineering Journal 2022, 430 , 132767. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2021.132767
  26. Yangke Long, Jian Dai, Shiyin Zhao, Shixin Huang, Zuotai Zhang. Metal–organic framework-derived magnetic carbon for efficient decontamination of organic pollutants via periodate activation: Surface atomic structure and mechanistic considerations. Journal of Hazardous Materials 2022, 424 , 126786. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.126786
  27. Zhoujie Pi, Kunjie Hou, Fubing Yao, Li He, Shengjie Chen, Ziletao Tao, Puyu Zhou, Dongbo Wang, Xiaoming Li, Qi Yang. In-situ regeneration of tetracycline-saturated hierarchical porous carbon by peroxydisulfate oxidation process: Performance, mechanism and application. Chemical Engineering Journal 2022, 427 , 131749. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2021.131749
  28. Shizong Wang, Lejin Xu, Jianlong Wang. Enhanced activation of peroxymonosulfate through exfoliated oxygen-doping graphitic carbon nitride for degradation of organic pollutants. Chemical Engineering Journal 2022, 428 , 131066. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2021.131066
  29. Li Chen, Tahir Maqbool, Congyu Hou, Wanyi Fu, Xihui Zhang. Mechanistic study of oxidative removal of bisphenol A by pristine nanocatalyst Mn3O4/peroxymonosulfate. Separation and Purification Technology 2022, 281 , 119882. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seppur.2021.119882
  30. Shizong Wang, Jianlong Wang. Degradation of sulfamethoxazole using peroxymonosulfate activated by cobalt embedded into N, O co-doped carbon nanotubes. Separation and Purification Technology 2021, 277 , 119457. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seppur.2021.119457
  31. Jawad Ali, Wang Jiang, Ajmal Shahzad, Jerosha Ifthikar, Xiuru Yang, Beibei Wu, Daniel T. Oyekunle, Wang Jia, Zhulei Chen, Li Zheng, Zhuqi Chen. Isolated copper ions and surface hydroxyl groups as a function of non-redox metals to modulate the reactivity and persulfate activation mechanism of spinel oxides. Chemical Engineering Journal 2021, 425 , 130679. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2021.130679
  32. Chen Sun, Tong Chen, Qunxing Huang, Xiaoguang Duan, Mingxiu Zhan, Longjie Ji, Xiaodong Li, Jianhua Yan. Selective production of singlet oxygen from zinc-etching hierarchically porous biochar for sulfamethoxazole degradation. Environmental Pollution 2021, 290 , 117991. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.117991
  33. Shiyin Zhao, Yangke Long, Xuehua Shen, Shubin Wang, Yiping Su, Xuanjun Zhang, Zuotai Zhang. Regulation of electronic structures of MOF-derived carbon via ligand adjustment for enhanced Fenton-like reactions. Science of The Total Environment 2021, 799 , 149497. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.149497
  34. Wei Miao, Ying Liu, Dandan Wang, Ningjie Du, Ziwei Ye, Yang Hou, Shun Mao, Kostya (Ken) Ostrikov. The role of Fe-Nx single-atom catalytic sites in peroxymonosulfate activation: Formation of surface-activated complex and non-radical pathways. Chemical Engineering Journal 2021, 423 , 130250. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2021.130250
  35. Jun Liang, Xiaoguang Duan, Xiaoyun Xu, Kexin Chen, Fei Wu, Hao Qiu, Chengshuai Liu, Shaobin Wang, Xinde Cao. Biomass-derived pyrolytic carbons accelerated Fe(III)/Fe(II) redox cycle for persulfate activation: Pyrolysis temperature-depended performance and mechanisms. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 2021, 297 , 120446. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcatb.2021.120446
  36. Dashi Lei, Juanqin Xue, Xiangyu Peng, Shuhao Li, Qiang Bi, Changbin Tang, Liang Zhang, Jing Zhang. Effective photocatalytic removal of As(III) by ZnFe2O4/Ag/AgCl coupled peroxymonosulfate: Z-Scheme charge transfer and dual active sites. Applied Surface Science 2021, 567 , 150860. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2021.150860
  37. Chien-Yu Chen, Yi-Chin Cho, Yi-Pin Lin. Activation of peroxydisulfate by carbon nanotube for the degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenol: Contributions of surface-bound radicals and direct electron transfer. Chemosphere 2021, 283 , 131282. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.131282
  38. Yue Yin, Ruolin Lv, Weiming Zhang, Junhe Lu, Yi Ren, Xiaoyang Li, Lu Lv, Ming Hua, Bingcai Pan. Exploring mechanisms of different active species formation in heterogeneous Fenton systems by regulating iron chemical environment. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 2021, 295 , 120282. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcatb.2021.120282
  39. Zhaokun Xiong, Yanni Jiang, Zelin Wu, Gang Yao, Bo Lai. Synthesis strategies and emerging mechanisms of metal-organic frameworks for sulfate radical-based advanced oxidation process: A review. Chemical Engineering Journal 2021, 421 , 127863. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2020.127863
  40. Su Ding, Jinquan Wan, Yan Wang, Zhicheng Yan, Yongwen Ma. Activation of persulfate by molecularly imprinted [email protected] for the targeted degradation of dimethyl phthalate: Effects of operating parameters and chlorine. Chemical Engineering Journal 2021, 422 , 130406. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2021.130406
  41. Yue Yin, Ruxue Jia, Weiming Zhang, Yi Ren, Xiaoyang Li, Ming Hua, Lu Lv. Electron-rich oxygen enhanced Fe-doped g-C3N4 mediated Fenton-like process: Accelerate Fe(III) reduction and strengthen catalyst stability. Journal of Cleaner Production 2021, 319 , 128680. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2021.128680
  42. Jie Dong, Weihua Xu, Shaobo Liu, Li Du, Qiang Chen, Ting Yang, Youzi Gong, Meifang Li, Xiaofei Tan, Yunguo Liu. Recent advances in applications of nonradical oxidation in water treatment: Mechanisms, catalysts and environmental effects. Journal of Cleaner Production 2021, 321 , 128781. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2021.128781
  43. Zhenyang Zhou, Qikai Shentu, Weijie Cai, Yuyuan Yao. Biomass-based porous materials encapsulating Iron phosphide nanoparticles for enhanced contaminant removal via peroxymonosulfate activation. Journal of Water Process Engineering 2021, 43 , 102242. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jwpe.2021.102242
  44. Qi Wang, Dongmei Zhou, Kuangfei Lin, Xiurong Chen. Carbon nitride–based cuprous catalysts induced nonradical-led oxidation by peroxydisulfate: Role of cuprous and dissolved oxygen. Chemical Engineering Journal 2021, 419 , 129667. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2021.129667
  45. Chencheng Dong, Zexiao Zheng, Zhiqiang Wang, Juhua He, Zhichao Ye, Xueqing Gong, Irene M.C. Lo. N-doped graphitic C3N4 nanosheets decorated with CoP nanoparticles: A highly efficient activator in singlet oxygen dominated visible-light-driven peroxymonosulfate activation for degradation of pharmaceuticals and personal care products. Journal of Hazardous Materials 2021, 416 , 125891. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.125891
  46. Banghai Liu, Wanqian Guo, Wenrui Jia, Huazhe Wang, Shanshan Zheng, Qishi Si, Qi Zhao, Haichao Luo, Jin Jiang, Nanqi Ren. Insights into the oxidation of organic contaminants by Co(II) activated peracetic acid: The overlooked role of high-valent cobalt-oxo species. Water Research 2021, 201 , 117313. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2021.117313
  47. Xingfa Li, Dandan Liang, Chaoxu Wang, Yongguo Li, Runbin Duan, Li Yu. Effective defect generation and dual reaction pathways for phenol degradation on boron-doped carbon nanotubes. Environmental Technology 2021, , 1-22. https://doi.org/10.1080/09593330.2021.1952311
  48. Chenhui Zhao, Binbin Shao, Ming Yan, Zhifeng Liu, Qinghua Liang, Qingyun He, Ting Wu, Yang Liu, Yuan Pan, Jing Huang, Jiajia Wang, Jie Liang, Lin Tang. Activation of peroxymonosulfate by biochar-based catalysts and applications in the degradation of organic contaminants: A review. Chemical Engineering Journal 2021, 416 , 128829. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2021.128829
  49. Xingfa Li, Dandan Liang, Chaoxu Wang, Yongguo Li. Insights into the peroxomonosulfate activation on boron-doped carbon nanotubes: Performance and mechanisms. Chemosphere 2021, 275 , 130058. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.130058
  50. Zhi-Hui Xie, Hong-Yu Zhou, Chuan-Shu He, Zhi-Cheng Pan, Gang Yao, Bo Lai. Synthesis, application and catalytic performance of layered double hydroxide based catalysts in advanced oxidation processes for wastewater decontamination: A review. Chemical Engineering Journal 2021, 414 , 128713. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2021.128713
  51. Haoran Song, Rong Du, Yuwei Wang, Daoyuan Zu, Rui Zhou, Yang Cai, Fangxian Wang, Zhuo Li, Yongming Shen, Changping Li. Anchoring single atom cobalt on two-dimensional MXene for activation of peroxymonosulfate. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 2021, 286 , 119898. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcatb.2021.119898
  52. Yue Yin, Yi Ren, Junhe Lu, Weiming Zhang, Chao Shan, Ming Hua, Lu Lv, Bingcai Pan. The nature and catalytic reactivity of UiO-66 supported Fe3O4 nanoparticles provide new insights into Fe-Zr dual active centers in Fenton-like reactions. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 2021, 286 , 119943. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcatb.2021.119943
  53. Dongli Guo, Shijie You, Fang Li, Yanbiao Liu. Engineering carbon nanocatalysts towards efficient degradation of emerging organic contaminants via persulfate activation: A review. Chinese Chemical Letters 2021, 120 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2021.06.027
  54. Jingwen Pan, Baoyu Gao, Pijun Duan, Kangying Guo, Muhammad Akram, Xing Xu, Qinyan Yue, Yue Gao. Improving peroxymonosulfate activation by copper ion-saturated adsorbent-based single atom catalysts for the degradation of organic contaminants: electron-transfer mechanism and the key role of Cu single atoms. Journal of Materials Chemistry A 2021, 9 (19) , 11604-11613. https://doi.org/10.1039/D1TA02237G
  55. Limeng Yang, Wendou Chen, Cuihong Sheng, Hailiang Wu, Ningtao Mao, Hui Zhang. Fe/N-codoped carbocatalysts loaded on carbon cloth (CC) for activating peroxymonosulfate (PMS) to degrade methyl orange dyes. Applied Surface Science 2021, 549 , 149300. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2021.149300
  56. Daniel T. Oyekunle, Xinquan Zhou, Ajmal Shahzad, Zhuqi Chen. Review on carbonaceous materials as persulfate activators: structure–performance relationship, mechanism and future perspectives on water treatment. Journal of Materials Chemistry A 2021, 9 (13) , 8012-8050. https://doi.org/10.1039/D1TA00033K
  57. Yaobin Ding, Xueru Wang, Libin Fu, Xueqin Peng, Cong Pan, Qihang Mao, Chengjun Wang, Jingchun Yan. Nonradicals induced degradation of organic pollutants by peroxydisulfate (PDS) and peroxymonosulfate (PMS): Recent advances and perspective. Science of The Total Environment 2021, 765 , 142794. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.142794
  58. Guangfeng Xiao, Tiantian Xu, Muhammad Faheem, Yanxing Xi, Ting Zhou, Haseeb Tufail Moryani, Jianguo Bao, Jiangkun Du. Evolution of Singlet Oxygen by Activating Peroxydisulfate and Peroxymonosulfate: A Review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2021, 18 (7) , 3344. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073344
  59. Huarui Li, Panpan Zhang, Yan Guo, Jialin Jia, Shaobin Wang, Xiaoguang Duan, Fuyi Cui, Shanshan Gao, Jiayu Tian. Iron-doped cuprous oxides toward accelerated nonradical oxidation: Doping induced controlled facet transformation and optimized electronic structure. Chemical Engineering Journal 2021, 407 , 127172. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2020.127172
  60. Aqsa Fayyaz, Karunamoorthy Saravanakumar, Kristy Talukdar, Yejin Kim, Yeomin Yoon, Chang Min Park. Catalytic oxidation of naproxen in cobalt spinel ferrite decorated Ti3C2Tx MXene activated persulfate system: Mechanisms and pathways. Chemical Engineering Journal 2021, 407 , 127842. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2020.127842
  61. Meiqiang Cai, Yu Zhang, Chunying Dong, Wentao Wu, Qian Wang, Zhijun Song, Yuejing Shi, Liguang Wu, Micong Jin, Dionysios D. Dionysiou, Zongsu Wei. Manganese doped iron–carbon composite for synergistic persulfate activation: Reactivity, stability, and mechanism. Journal of Hazardous Materials 2021, 405 , 124228. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.124228
  62. Zhongjuan Wang, Yunhe Li, Guohua Shen, Yuanqing Li, Xinyi Zhang, Jianfeng Gou, Xiuwen Cheng. Synthesis of CMK/LDH and CMK/CLDH for sulfamethoxazole degradation by PS activation: A comparative study of characterization and operating parameter, mechanism pathway. Separation and Purification Technology 2021, 258 , 118018. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seppur.2020.118018
  63. Hui Song, Zhuang Liu, Zeyu Guan, Fan Yang, Dongsheng Xia, Dongya Li. Efficient persulfate non-radical activation of electron-rich copper active sites induced by oxygen on graphitic carbon nitride. Science of The Total Environment 2021, 762 , 143127. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.143127
  64. Tao Chen, Jie Miao, Ming Zhu, Ran Ran, Wei Zhou, Zongping Shao. Thermal reduction-assisted electronic structure tuning of perovskite oxide as catalyst for efficient advanced oxidation. Composites Part B: Engineering 2021, 207 , 108577. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesb.2020.108577
  65. Kai Li, Shuanglong Ma, Shengjun Xu, Haichao Fu, Zhuoqian Li, Yi Li, Shiliang Liu, Jinge Du. The mechanism changes during bisphenol A degradation in three iron functionalized biochar/peroxymonosulfate systems: The crucial roles of iron contents and graphitized carbon layers. Journal of Hazardous Materials 2021, 404 , 124145. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.124145
  66. Hui Song, Zeyu Guan, Dongsheng Xia, Haiming Xu, Fan Yang, Dongya Li, Xiaohu Li. Copper-oxygen synergistic electronic reconstruction on g-C3N4 for efficient non-radical catalysis for peroxydisulfate and peroxymonosulfate. Separation and Purification Technology 2021, 257 , 117957. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seppur.2020.117957
  67. Yong Liu, Yang Zhao, Jianlong Wang. Activation of peroxydisulfate by a novel [email protected] composite for 2, 4-dichlorophenol degradation. Science of The Total Environment 2021, 754 , 141883. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.141883
  68. Yangke Long, Shun Li, Yiping Su, Shuyang Wang, Shiyin Zhao, Shubin Wang, Zhen Zhang, Wei Huang, Yong Liu, Zuotai Zhang. Sulfur-containing iron nanocomposites confined in S/N co-doped carbon for catalytic peroxymonosulfate oxidation of organic pollutants: Low iron leaching, degradation mechanism and intermediates. Chemical Engineering Journal 2021, 404 , 126499. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2020.126499
  69. Nina Finčur, Paula Sfîrloagă, Predrag Putnik, Vesna Despotović, Marina Lazarević, Maria Uzelac, Biljana Abramović, Paulina Vlazan, Cătălin Ianăși, Tünde Alapi, Máté Náfrádi, Ivana Maksimović, Marina Putnik-Delić, Daniela Šojić Merkulov. Removal of Emerging Pollutants from Water Using Environmentally Friendly Processes: Photocatalysts Preparation, Characterization, Intermediates Identification and Toxicity Assessment. Nanomaterials 2021, 11 (1) , 215. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11010215
  70. Dan-Ni Pei, Chang Liu, Ai-Yong Zhang, Xiao-Qiang Pan, Han-Qing Yu. In situ organic Fenton-like catalysis triggered by anodic polymeric intermediates for electrochemical water purification. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2020, 117 (49) , 30966-30972. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2005035117
  71. Eun-Tae Yun, Sung-Woo Park, Hyun Jung Shin, Hongshin Lee, Dong-Wan Kim, Jaesang Lee. Peroxymonosulfate activation by carbon-encapsulated metal nanoparticles: Switching the primary reaction route and increasing chemical stability. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 2020, 279 , 119360. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcatb.2020.119360
  72. Jianlong Wang, Shizong Wang. Reactive species in advanced oxidation processes: Formation, identification and reaction mechanism. Chemical Engineering Journal 2020, 401 , 126158. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2020.126158
  73. Qi Yang, Yidi Chen, Xiaoguang Duan, Shanke Zhou, Yue Niu, Hongqi Sun, Linjie Zhi, Shaobin Wang. Unzipping carbon nanotubes to nanoribbons for revealing the mechanism of nonradical oxidation by carbocatalysis. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 2020, 276 , 119146. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcatb.2020.119146
  74. Chaoqun Tan, Tianhui Xu, Huan He, Qinglong Xu, Chao Fang, Erdeng Du, Jing Deng, Wenhai Chu. Bimetallic oxychloride as an efficient oxone activator: Radical and non-radical oxidation of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Chemical Engineering Journal 2020, 400 , 125921. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2020.125921
  75. Md Manik Mian, Guijian Liu, Huihui Zhou. Preparation of N-doped biochar from sewage sludge and melamine for peroxymonosulfate activation: N-functionality and catalytic mechanisms. Science of The Total Environment 2020, 744 , 140862. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.140862
  76. Hai-Bin Qiu, Pu-Can Guo, Li Yuan, Guo-Ping Sheng. Different non-radical oxidation processes of persulfate and peroxymonosulfate activation by nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon. Chinese Chemical Letters 2020, 31 (10) , 2614-2618. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2020.08.014
  77. Weijie Cai, Zhenyang Zhou, Xiaoyi Tan, Wentao Wang, Weiyang Lv, Haixiang Chen, Qin Zhao, Yuyuan Yao. Magnetic iron phosphide particles mediated peroxymonosulfate activation for highly efficient elimination of sulfonamide antibiotics. Chemical Engineering Journal 2020, 397 , 125279. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2020.125279
  78. Zhuofan Huang, Qintie Lin, Haoyu Luo, Pengran Guo, Qingsong Weng, Yongqian Lei, Shuailong Cheng, Shuang-Shuang Liu. Degradation of progesterone by coexisting free radical and nonradical pathways in the CuO/HNTs-PS system. Chemical Engineering Journal 2020, 398 , 125458. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2020.125458
  79. Tian Wang, Xufang Qian, Dongting Yue, Xuan Yan, Hiromi Yamashita, Yixin Zhao. CaMnO3 perovskite nanocrystals for efficient peroxydisulfate activation. Chemical Engineering Journal 2020, 398 , 125638. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2020.125638
  80. Bo Liu, Yangmei Li, Shengtao Xing. Insight into the mechanism of CuO activated persulfate with the assistance of bicarbonate for removing organic pollutants. Journal of Water Process Engineering 2020, 37 , 101403. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jwpe.2020.101403
  81. Banghai Liu, Wanqian Guo, Huazhe Wang, Qishi Si, Qi Zhao, Haichao Luo, Nanqi Ren. B-doped graphitic porous biochar with enhanced surface affinity and electron transfer for efficient peroxydisulfate activation. Chemical Engineering Journal 2020, 396 , 125119. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2020.125119
  82. Van Luan Pham, Do-Gun Kim, Seok-Oh Ko. Advanced oxidative degradation of acetaminophen by carbon catalysts: Radical vs non-radical pathways. Environmental Research 2020, 188 , 109767. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2020.109767
  83. Sawaira Adil, Woong Sub Kim, Tae Hyeong Kim, Seunghyun Lee, Seok Won Hong, Eun-Ju Kim. Defective, oxygen-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes as an efficient peroxymonosulfate activator for degradation of organic pollutants. Journal of Hazardous Materials 2020, 396 , 122757. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.122757
  84. Shishu Zhu, Chao Jin, Xiaoguang Duan, Shaobin Wang, Shih-Hsin Ho. Nonradical oxidation in persulfate activation by graphene-like nanosheets (GNS): Differentiating the contributions of singlet oxygen (1O2) and sorption-dependent electron transfer. Chemical Engineering Journal 2020, 393 , 124725. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2020.124725
  85. Xiaodi Duan, Shanshan Yang, Stanisław Wacławek, Guodong Fang, Ruiyang Xiao, Dionysios D. Dionysiou. Limitations and prospects of sulfate-radical based advanced oxidation processes. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering 2020, 8 (4) , 103849. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jece.2020.103849
  86. Jia-Cheng E. Yang, Yuan Lin, Hui-Hui Peng, Baoling Yuan, Dionysios D. Dionysiou, Xiao-Dan Huang, Dan-Dan Zhang, Ming-Lai Fu. Novel magnetic rod-like Mn-Fe oxycarbide toward peroxymonosulfate activation for efficient oxidation of butyl paraben: Radical oxidation versus singlet oxygenation. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 2020, 268 , 118549. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcatb.2019.118549
  87. Huixin Shao, Yanbin Wang, Huabin Zeng, Juanjuan Zhang, Yan Wang, Mika Sillanpää, Xu Zhao. Enhanced photoelectrocatalytic degradation of bisphenol a by BiVO4 photoanode coupling with peroxymonosulfate. Journal of Hazardous Materials 2020, 394 , 121105. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2019.121105
  88. Md Manik Mian, Guijian Liu. Activation of peroxymonosulfate by chemically modified sludge biochar for the removal of organic pollutants: Understanding the role of active sites and mechanism. Chemical Engineering Journal 2020, 392 , 123681. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2019.123681
  89. Shanshan Yang, Xiaodi Duan, Junqin Liu, Pingxiao Wu, Chunquan Li, Xiongbo Dong, Nengwu Zhu, Dionysios D. Dionysiou. Efficient peroxymonosulfate activation and bisphenol A degradation derived from mineral-carbon materials: Key role of double mineral-templates. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 2020, 267 , 118701. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcatb.2020.118701
  90. Jiangfang Yu, Haopeng Feng, Lin Tang, Ya Pang, Guangming Zeng, Yue Lu, Haoran Dong, Jiajia Wang, Yani Liu, Chengyang Feng, Jingjing Wang, Bo Peng, Shujing Ye. Metal-free carbon materials for persulfate-based advanced oxidation process: Microstructure, property and tailoring. Progress in Materials Science 2020, 111 , 100654. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmatsci.2020.100654
  91. Jia Li, Jialu Zhu, Lizhu Fang, Yulun Nie, Na Tian, Xike Tian, Liqiang Lu, Zhaoxin Zhou, Chao Yang, Yong Li. Enhanced peroxymonosulfate activation by supported microporous carbon for degradation of tetracycline via non-radical mechanism. Separation and Purification Technology 2020, 240 , 116617. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seppur.2020.116617
  92. Yi Li, Shuanglong Ma, Shengjun Xu, Haichao Fu, Zhuoqian Li, Kai Li, Kai Sheng, Jinge Du, Xin Lu, Xianghua Li, Shiliang Liu. Novel magnetic biochar as an activator for peroxymonosulfate to degrade bisphenol A: Emphasizing the synergistic effect between graphitized structure and CoFe2O4. Chemical Engineering Journal 2020, 387 , 124094. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2020.124094
  93. Dahu Ding, Shengjiong Yang, Xiaoyong Qian, Liwei Chen, Tianming Cai. Nitrogen-doping positively whilst sulfur-doping negatively affect the catalytic activity of biochar for the degradation of organic contaminant. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 2020, 263 , 118348. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcatb.2019.118348
  94. Hanrui Su, Yan Wei, Xiaolei Qu, Chunyang Yu, Qilin Li, Pedro J.J. Alvarez, Mingce Long. Mechanistic inference on the reaction kinetics of phenols and anilines in carbon nanotubes-activated peroxydisulfate systems: pp-LFERs and QSARs analyses. Chemical Engineering Journal 2020, 385 , 123923. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2019.123923
  95. Zhe Li, Yuqing Sun, Yang Yang, Yitong Han, Tongshuai Wang, Jiawei Chen, Daniel C.W. Tsang. Comparing biochar- and bentonite-supported Fe-based catalysts for selective degradation of antibiotics: Mechanisms and pathway. Environmental Research 2020, 183 , 109156. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2020.109156
  96. Hak-Hyeon Kim, Donghyun Lee, Jaemin Choi, Hongshin Lee, Jiwon Seo, Taewan Kim, Ki-Myeong Lee, Anh Le-Tuan Pham, Changha Lee. Nickel–Nickel oxide nanocomposite as a magnetically separable persulfate activator for the nonradical oxidation of organic contaminants. Journal of Hazardous Materials 2020, 388 , 121767. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2019.121767
  97. Zhiping Chen, Sijing Bi, Guangyi Zhao, Yuancai Chen, Yongyou Hu. Enhanced degradation of triclosan by cobalt manganese spinel-type oxide activated peroxymonosulfate oxidation process via sulfate radicals and singlet oxygen: Mechanisms and intermediates identification. Science of The Total Environment 2020, 711 , 134715. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.134715
  98. Zhen Wang, Wei Qiu, Suyan Pang, Yuan Gao, Yang Zhou, Ying Cao, Jin Jiang. Relative contribution of ferryl ion species (Fe(IV)) and sulfate radical formed in nanoscale zero valent iron activated peroxydisulfate and peroxymonosulfate processes. Water Research 2020, 172 , 115504. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2020.115504
  99. Yi-di Chen, Xiaoguang Duan, Chaofan Zhang, Shaobin Wang, Nan-qi Ren, Shih-Hsin Ho. Graphitic biochar catalysts from anaerobic digestion sludge for nonradical degradation of micropollutants and disinfection. Chemical Engineering Journal 2020, 384 , 123244. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2019.123244
  100. Cheng Chen, Li Liu, Yuxin Li, Wei Li, Lixiang Zhou, Yeqing Lan, Ying Li. Insight into heterogeneous catalytic degradation of sulfamethazine by peroxymonosulfate activated with CuCo2O4 derived from bimetallic oxalate. Chemical Engineering Journal 2020, 384 , 123257. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2019.123257
Load all citations