Mechanism of Base Activation of Persulfate

View Author Information
Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164-2910
* Corresponding author phone: (509)335-3761; fax: (509)335-7632; e-mail: [email protected]
Cite this: Environ. Sci. Technol. 2010, 44, 16, 6423–6428
Publication Date (Web):July 16, 2010
Copyright © 2010 American Chemical Society
Article Views
Read OnlinePDF (455 KB)
Supporting Info (1)»


Base is the most commonly used activator of persulfate for the treatment of contaminated groundwater by in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO). A mechanism for the base activation of persulfate is proposed involving the base-catalyzed hydrolysis of persulfate to hydroperoxide anion and sulfate followed by the reduction of another persulfate molecule by hydroperoxide. Reduction by hydroperoxide decomposes persulfate into sulfate radical and sulfate anion, and hydroperoxide is oxidized to superoxide. The base-catalyzed hydrolysis of persulfate was supported by kinetic analyses of persulfate decomposition at various base:persulfate molar ratios and an increased rate of persulfate decomposition in D2O vs H2O. Stoichiometric analyses confirmed that hydroperoxide reacts with persulfate in a 1:1 molar ratio. Addition of hydroperoxide to basic persulfate systems resulted in rapid decomposition of the hydroperoxide and persulfate and decomposition of the superoxide probe hexachloroethane. The presence of superoxide was confirmed with scavenging by Cu(II). Electron spin resonance spectroscopy confirmed the generation of sulfate radical, hydroxyl radical, and superoxide. The results of this research are consistent with the widespread reactivity reported for base-activated persulfate when it is used for ISCO.

Supporting Information

Jump To

Figure S1: effect of ionic strength on persulfate degradation rate (further supports the base-catalyzed hydrolysis of persulfate) and Figure S2: effect of varying base:persulfate ratio on the degradation rate of added H2O2+HO2 (further supports the role of hydroperoxide in persulfate degradation). This material is available free of charge via the Internet at

Terms & Conditions

Most electronic Supporting Information files are available without a subscription to ACS Web Editions. Such files may be downloaded by article for research use (if there is a public use license linked to the relevant article, that license may permit other uses). Permission may be obtained from ACS for other uses through requests via the RightsLink permission system:

Cited By

This article is cited by 767 publications.

  1. Abeer Saad Al-Shehri, Zoya Zaheer, Amell Musaid Alsudairi, Samia A. Kosa. Photo-oxidative Decolorization of Brilliant Blue with AgNPs as an Activator in the Presence of K2S2O8 and NaBH4. ACS Omega 2021, 6 (41) , 27510-27526.
  2. Bozhen Li, Yiming Li, Jiarui Ren, Fengli Dai, Yaping Zhang, Yufeng He, Pengfei Song, Rongmin Wang. Hydroxyapatite Coated with Co-Based Metal Organic Framework Nanoparticles as Heterojunctions for Catalytic Degradation of Organics. ACS Applied Nano Materials 2021, 4 (9) , 9370-9381.
  3. Moshan Chen, Carter A. Rholl, Tianchen He, Aditi Sharma, Kimberly M. Parker. Halogen Radicals Contribute to the Halogenation and Degradation of Chemical Additives Used in Hydraulic Fracturing. Environmental Science & Technology 2021, 55 (3) , 1545-1554.
  4. Yongguang Bu, Hongchao Li, Wenjing Yu, Yifan Pan, Lijun Li, Yanfeng Wang, Liangtao Pu, Jie Ding, Guandao Gao, Bingcai Pan. Peroxydisulfate Activation and Singlet Oxygen Generation by Oxygen Vacancy for Degradation of Contaminants. Environmental Science & Technology 2021, 55 (3) , 2110-2120.
  5. Yani Liu, Jun Luo, Lin Tang, Chengyang Feng, Jiajia Wang, Yaocheng Deng, Haoyu Liu, Jiangfang Yu, Haopeng Feng, Jingjing Wang. Origin of the Enhanced Reusability and Electron Transfer of the Carbon-Coated Mn3O4 Nanocube for Persulfate Activation. ACS Catalysis 2020, 10 (24) , 14857-14870.
  6. Yang Zong, Xiaohong Guan, Jun Xu, Yong Feng, Yunfeng Mao, Longqian Xu, Huaqiang Chu, Deli Wu. Unraveling the Overlooked Involvement of High-Valent Cobalt-Oxo Species Generated from the Cobalt(II)-Activated Peroxymonosulfate Process. Environmental Science & Technology 2020, 54 (24) , 16231-16239.
  7. Guodong Fang, Teng Zhang, Hongbiao Cui, Dionysios D. Dionysiou, Cun Liu, Juan Gao, Yujun Wang, Dongmei Zhou. Synergy between Iron and Selenide on FeSe2(111) Surface Driving Peroxymonosulfate Activation for Efficient Degradation of Pollutants. Environmental Science & Technology 2020, 54 (23) , 15489-15498.
  8. Hui-Ying Gao, Chun-Hua Huang, Li Mao, Bo Shao, Jie Shao, Zhu-Ying Yan, Miao Tang, Ben-Zhan Zhu. First Direct and Unequivocal Electron Spin Resonance Spin-Trapping Evidence for pH-Dependent Production of Hydroxyl Radicals from Sulfate Radicals. Environmental Science & Technology 2020, 54 (21) , 14046-14056.
  9. Ning Jiang, Haodan Xu, Lihong Wang, Jin Jiang, Tao Zhang. Nonradical Oxidation of Pollutants with Single-Atom-Fe(III)-Activated Persulfate: Fe(V) Being the Possible Intermediate Oxidant. Environmental Science & Technology 2020, 54 (21) , 14057-14065.
  10. Jitao Lv, Ruixia Han, Lei Luo, Xiangyun Zhang, Shuzhen Zhang. A Novel Strategy to Evaluate the Aromaticity Degree of Natural Organic Matter Based on Oxidization-Induced Chemiluminescence. Environmental Science & Technology 2020, 54 (7) , 4171-4179.
  11. Xueying Yang, Jingsheng Cai, Xiaoning Wang, Yifan Li, Zhangxiong Wu, Winston Duo Wu, Xiao Dong Chen, Jingyu Sun, Sheng-Peng Sun, Zhaohui Wang. A Bimetallic Fe–Mn Oxide-Activated Oxone for In Situ Chemical Oxidation (ISCO) of Trichloroethylene in Groundwater: Efficiency, Sustained Activity, and Mechanism Investigation. Environmental Science & Technology 2020, 54 (6) , 3714-3724.
  12. Jaesang Lee, Urs von Gunten, Jae-Hong Kim. Persulfate-Based Advanced Oxidation: Critical Assessment of Opportunities and Roadblocks. Environmental Science & Technology 2020, 54 (6) , 3064-3081.
  13. Ali Jawad, Kun Zhan, Haibin Wang, Ajmal Shahzad, Zehua Zeng, Jia Wang, Xinquan Zhou, Habib Ullah, Zhulei Chen, Zhuqi Chen. Tuning of Persulfate Activation from a Free Radical to a Nonradical Pathway through the Incorporation of Non-Redox Magnesium Oxide. Environmental Science & Technology 2020, 54 (4) , 2476-2488.
  14. Ya-Fei Guo, Chun-Yuan Gao, Kai-Ge Yang, Zhong-Jin Wang, Yong-Hua Duan, Shu-Xiao Feng, Hang Xu. Mild and Deep Oxidative Extraction Desulfurization Using Dual-Function Imidazolium Peroxydisulfate Ionic Liquid. Energy & Fuels 2019, 33 (11) , 10728-10733.
  15. Nasim E. Pica, Joanna Funkhouser, Yiming Yin, Zuoyou Zhang, Donato M. Ceres, Tiezheng Tong, Jens Blotevogel. Electrochemical Oxidation of Hexafluoropropylene Oxide Dimer Acid (GenX): Mechanistic Insights and Efficient Treatment Train with Nanofiltration. Environmental Science & Technology 2019, 53 (21) , 12602-12609.
  16. Kuan Z. Huang, Huichun Zhang. Direct Electron-Transfer-Based Peroxymonosulfate Activation by Iron-Doped Manganese Oxide (δ-MnO2) and the Development of Galvanic Oxidation Processes (GOPs). Environmental Science & Technology 2019, 53 (21) , 12610-12620.
  17. Jiabin Chen, Xuefei Zhou, Peizhe Sun, Yalei Zhang, Ching-Hua Huang. Complexation Enhances Cu(II)-Activated Peroxydisulfate: A Novel Activation Mechanism and Cu(III) Contribution. Environmental Science & Technology 2019, 53 (20) , 11774-11782.
  18. Silvio Canonica, Ursula Schönenberger. Inhibitory Effect of Dissolved Organic Matter on the Transformation of Selected Anilines and Sulfonamide Antibiotics Induced by the Sulfate Radical. Environmental Science & Technology 2019, 53 (20) , 11783-11791.
  19. Ze Wang, Baojun Bai, Enze Zhou, Jingyang Pu, Thomas Schuman. Experimental Evaluation of Oxidizing Breakers for a Polyacrylamide-Based Re-Crosslinkable Preformed Particle Gel. Energy & Fuels 2019, 33 (6) , 5001-5010.
  20. Jonghun Lim, Yang Yang, Michael R. Hoffmann. Activation of Peroxymonosulfate by Oxygen Vacancies-Enriched Cobalt-Doped Black TiO2 Nanotubes for the Removal of Organic Pollutants. Environmental Science & Technology 2019, 53 (12) , 6972-6980.
  21. Yue Li, Roya Baghi, Jan Filip, Syful Islam, Louisa Hope-weeks, Weile Yan. Activation of Peroxydisulfate by Ferrite Materials for Phenol Degradation. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering 2019, 7 (9) , 8099-8108.
  22. Peizeng Yang, Yuefei Ji, Junhe Lu, Qingguo Huang. Formation of Nitrophenolic Byproducts during Heat-Activated Peroxydisulfate Oxidation in the Presence of Natural Organic Matter and Nitrite. Environmental Science & Technology 2019, 53 (8) , 4255-4264.
  23. Shishu Zhu, Xiaojie Li, Jian Kang, Xiaoguang Duan, Shaobin Wang. Persulfate Activation on Crystallographic Manganese Oxides: Mechanism of Singlet Oxygen Evolution for Nonradical Selective Degradation of Aqueous Contaminants. Environmental Science & Technology 2019, 53 (1) , 307-315.
  24. Gui-Xiang Huang, Jin-Yan Si, Chen Qian, Wei-Kang Wang, Shu-Chuan Mei, Chu-Ya Wang, Han-Qing Yu. Ultrasensitive Fluorescence Detection of Peroxymonosulfate Based on a Sulfate Radical-Mediated Aromatic Hydroxylation. Analytical Chemistry 2018, 90 (24) , 14439-14446.
  25. Guodong Fang, Xiru Chen, Wenhui Wu, Cun Liu, Dionysios D. Dionysiou, Tingting Fan, Yujun Wang, Changyin Zhu, Dongmei Zhou. Mechanisms of Interaction between Persulfate and Soil Constituents: Activation, Free Radical Formation, Conversion, and Identification. Environmental Science & Technology 2018, 52 (24) , 14352-14361.
  26. Yixiang Bao, Shanshan Deng, Xinshu Jiang, Yingxi Qu, Yuan He, Liquan Liu, Qiwan Chai, Mehvish Mumtaz, Jun Huang, Giovanni Cagnetta, Gang Yu. Degradation of PFOA Substitute: GenX (HFPO–DA Ammonium Salt): Oxidation with UV/Persulfate or Reduction with UV/Sulfite?. Environmental Science & Technology 2018, 52 (20) , 11728-11734.
  27. Zhen Wang, Jin Jiang, Suyan Pang, Yang Zhou, Chaoting Guan, Yuan Gao, Juan Li, Yi Yang, Wei Qiu, Chengchun Jiang. Is Sulfate Radical Really Generated from Peroxydisulfate Activated by Iron(II) for Environmental Decontamination?. Environmental Science & Technology 2018, 52 (19) , 11276-11284.
  28. Changyin Zhu, Fengxiao Zhu, Cun Liu, Ning Chen, Dongmei Zhou, Guodong Fang, Juan Gao. Reductive Hexachloroethane Degradation by S2O8•– with Thermal Activation of Persulfate under Anaerobic Conditions. Environmental Science & Technology 2018, 52 (15) , 8548-8557.
  29. Gabriela F. P. de Souza, Juliano A. Bonacin, Airton G. Salles, Jr.. Visible-Light-Driven Epoxyacylation and Hydroacylation of Olefins Using Methylene Blue/Persulfate System in Water. The Journal of Organic Chemistry 2018, 83 (15) , 8331-8340.
  30. Ikechukwu A. Ike, John D. Orbell, Mikel Duke. Activation of Persulfate at Waste Heat Temperatures for Humic Acid Degradation. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering 2018, 6 (3) , 4345-4353.
  31. Wei Li, Ruben Orozco, Natalia Camargos, and Haizhou Liu . Mechanisms on the Impacts of Alkalinity, pH, and Chloride on Persulfate-Based Groundwater Remediation. Environmental Science & Technology 2017, 51 (7) , 3948-3959.
  32. Zongsu Wei, Frederick A. Villamena, and Linda K. Weavers . Kinetics and Mechanism of Ultrasonic Activation of Persulfate: An in Situ EPR Spin Trapping Study. Environmental Science & Technology 2017, 51 (6) , 3410-3417.
  33. Ping Liang, Chi Zhang, Xiaoguang Duan, Hongqi Sun, Shaomin Liu, Moses O. Tade, and Shaobin Wang . N-Doped Graphene from Metal–Organic Frameworks for Catalytic Oxidation of p-Hydroxylbenzoic Acid: N-Functionality and Mechanism. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering 2017, 5 (3) , 2693-2701.
  34. Hongshin Lee, Hyoung-il Kim, Seunghyun Weon, Wonyong Choi, Yu Sik Hwang, Jiwon Seo, Changha Lee, and Jae-Hong Kim . Activation of Persulfates by Graphitized Nanodiamonds for Removal of Organic Compounds. Environmental Science & Technology 2016, 50 (18) , 10134-10142.
  35. Yong-Yoon Ahn, Eun-Tae Yun, Ji-Won Seo, Changha Lee, Sang Hoon Kim, Jae-Hong Kim, and Jaesang Lee . Activation of Peroxymonosulfate by Surface-Loaded Noble Metal Nanoparticles for Oxidative Degradation of Organic Compounds. Environmental Science & Technology 2016, 50 (18) , 10187-10197.
  36. Bo Sun, Jun Ma, and David L. Sedlak . Chemisorption of Perfluorooctanoic Acid on Powdered Activated Carbon Initiated by Persulfate in Aqueous Solution. Environmental Science & Technology 2016, 50 (14) , 7618-7624.
  37. Min Sik Kim, Ki-Myeong Lee, Hyung-Eun Kim, Hye-Jin Lee, Changsoo Lee, and Changha Lee . Disintegration of Waste Activated Sludge by Thermally-Activated Persulfates for Enhanced Dewaterability. Environmental Science & Technology 2016, 50 (13) , 7106-7115.
  38. Tao Zhang, Yin Chen, and TorOve Leiknes . Oxidation of Refractory Benzothiazoles with PMS/CuFe2O4: Kinetics and Transformation Intermediates. Environmental Science & Technology 2016, 50 (11) , 5864-5873.
  39. Junhe Lu, Wei Dong, Yuefei Ji, Deyang Kong, and Qingguo Huang . Natural Organic Matter Exposed to Sulfate Radicals Increases Its Potential to Form Halogenated Disinfection Byproducts. Environmental Science & Technology 2016, 50 (10) , 5060-5067.
  40. Yajie Qian, Xin Guo, Yalei Zhang, Yue Peng, Peizhe Sun, Ching-Hua Huang, Junfeng Niu, Xuefei Zhou, and John C. Crittenden . Perfluorooctanoic Acid Degradation Using UV–Persulfate Process: Modeling of the Degradation and Chlorate Formation. Environmental Science & Technology 2016, 50 (2) , 772-781.
  41. Haizhou Liu, Thomas A. Bruton, Wei Li, Jean Van Buren, Carsten Prasse, Fiona M. Doyle, and David L. Sedlak . Oxidation of Benzene by Persulfate in the Presence of Fe(III)- and Mn(IV)-Containing Oxides: Stoichiometric Efficiency and Transformation Products. Environmental Science & Technology 2016, 50 (2) , 890-898.
  42. Yang Zhou, Jin Jiang, Yuan Gao, Jun Ma, Su-Yan Pang, Juan Li, Xue-Ting Lu, and Li-Peng Yuan . Activation of Peroxymonosulfate by Benzoquinone: A Novel Nonradical Oxidation Process. Environmental Science & Technology 2015, 49 (21) , 12941-12950.
  43. Xiaoguang Duan, Hongqi Sun, Jian Kang, Yuxian Wang, Stacey Indrawirawan, and Shaobin Wang . Insights into Heterogeneous Catalysis of Persulfate Activation on Dimensional-Structured Nanocarbons. ACS Catalysis 2015, 5 (8) , 4629-4636.
  44. Yang Lei, Chuh-Shun Chen, Yao-Jen Tu, Yao-Hui Huang, and Hui Zhang . Heterogeneous Degradation of Organic Pollutants by Persulfate Activated by CuO-Fe3O4: Mechanism, Stability, and Effects of pH and Bicarbonate Ions. Environmental Science & Technology 2015, 49 (11) , 6838-6845.
  45. Guodong Fang, Cun Liu, Juan Gao, Dionysios D. Dionysiou, and Dongmei Zhou . Manipulation of Persistent Free Radicals in Biochar To Activate Persulfate for Contaminant Degradation. Environmental Science & Technology 2015, 49 (9) , 5645-5653.
  46. Yuru Wang, Julien Le Roux, Tao Zhang, and Jean-Philippe Croué . Formation of Brominated Disinfection Byproducts from Natural Organic Matter Isolates and Model Compounds in a Sulfate Radical-Based Oxidation Process. Environmental Science & Technology 2014, 48 (24) , 14534-14542.
  47. Jordi Palau, Orfan Shouakar-Stash, and Daniel Hunkeler . Carbon and Chlorine Isotope Analysis to Identify Abiotic Degradation Pathways of 1,1,1-Trichloroethane. Environmental Science & Technology 2014, 48 (24) , 14400-14408.
  48. Yi Zhao, Runlong Hao, Peng Zhang, and Sihan Zhou . Integrative Process for Simultaneous Removal of SO2 and NO Utilizing a Vaporized H2O2/Na2S2O8. Energy & Fuels 2014, 28 (10) , 6502-6510.
  49. Haizhou Liu, Thomas A. Bruton, Fiona M. Doyle, and David L. Sedlak . In Situ Chemical Oxidation of Contaminated Groundwater by Persulfate: Decomposition by Fe(III)- and Mn(IV)-Containing Oxides and Aquifer Materials. Environmental Science & Technology 2014, 48 (17) , 10330-10336.
  50. Tao Zhang, Yin Chen, Yuru Wang, Julien Le Roux, Yang Yang, and Jean-Philippe Croué . Efficient Peroxydisulfate Activation Process Not Relying on Sulfate Radical Generation for Water Pollutant Degradation. Environmental Science & Technology 2014, 48 (10) , 5868-5875.
  51. Lebohang Hlalele, Dagmar R. D’hooge, Christoph J. Dürr, Andreas Kaiser, Sven Brandau, and Christopher Barner-Kowollik . RAFT-Mediated ab Initio Emulsion Copolymerization of 1,3-Butadiene with Acrylonitrile. Macromolecules 2014, 47 (9) , 2820-2829.
  52. Jing Zou, Jun Ma, and Jianqiao Zhang . Comment on Electrolytic Manipulation of Persulfate Reactivity by Iron Electrodes for TCE Degradation in Groundwater. Environmental Science & Technology 2014, 48 (8) , 4630-4631.
  53. Minhui Xu, Xiaogang Gu, Shuguang Lu, Zhaofu Qiu, and Qian Sui . Role of Reactive Oxygen Species for 1,1,1-Trichloroethane Degradation in a Thermally Activated Persulfate System. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 2014, 53 (3) , 1056-1063.
  54. Songhu Yuan, Peng Liao, and Akram N. Alshawabkeh . Electrolytic Manipulation of Persulfate Reactivity by Iron Electrodes for Trichloroethylene Degradation in Groundwater. Environmental Science & Technology 2014, 48 (1) , 656-663.
  55. Jing Zou, Jun Ma, Liwei Chen, Xuchun Li, Yinghong Guan, Pengchao Xie, and Chao Pan . Rapid Acceleration of Ferrous Iron/Peroxymonosulfate Oxidation of Organic Pollutants by Promoting Fe(III)/Fe(II) Cycle with Hydroxylamine. Environmental Science & Technology 2013, 47 (20) , 11685-11691.
  56. Samyoung Ahn, Tawnya D. Peterson, Jason Righter, Danielle M. Miles, and Paul G. Tratnyek . Disinfection of Ballast Water with Iron Activated Persulfate. Environmental Science & Technology 2013, 47 (20) , 11717-11725.
  57. Mushtaque Ahmad, Amy L. Teel, and Richard J. Watts . Mechanism of Persulfate Activation by Phenols. Environmental Science & Technology 2013, 47 (11) , 5864-5871.
  58. Tao Zhang, Haibo Zhu, and Jean-Philippe Croué . Production of Sulfate Radical from Peroxymonosulfate Induced by a Magnetically Separable CuFe2O4 Spinel in Water: Efficiency, Stability, and Mechanism. Environmental Science & Technology 2013, 47 (6) , 2784-2791.
  59. Jing-Yun Fang and Chii Shang . Bromate Formation from Bromide Oxidation by the UV/Persulfate Process. Environmental Science & Technology 2012, 46 (16) , 8976-8983.
  60. Xiaogang Gu, Shuguang Lu, Zhaofu Qiu, Qian Sui, Zhouwei Miao, Kuangfei Lin, Yongdi Liu, and Qishi Luo . Comparison of Photodegradation Performance of 1,1,1-Trichloroethane in Aqueous Solution with the Addition of H2O2 or S2O82– Oxidants. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 2012, 51 (21) , 7196-7204.
  61. Ying-Hong Guan, Jun Ma, Xu-Chun Li, Jing-Yun Fang, and Li-Wei Chen . Influence of pH on the Formation of Sulfate and Hydroxyl Radicals in the UV/Peroxymonosulfate System. Environmental Science & Technology 2011, 45 (21) , 9308-9314.
  62. Xiaogang Gu, Shuguang Lu, Lin Li, Zhaofu Qiu, Qian Sui, Kuangfei Lin, and Qishi Luo . Oxidation of 1,1,1-Trichloroethane Stimulated by Thermally Activated Persulfate. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 2011, 50 (19) , 11029-11036.
  63. Yu-Dan Dong, Liang-Qing Zhang, Peng Zhou, Yang Liu, Hao Lin, Gan-Ji Zhong, Gang Yao, Zhong-Ming Li, Bo Lai. Natural cellulose supported carbon nanotubes and Fe3O4 NPs as the efficient peroxydisulfate activator for the removal of bisphenol A: An enhanced non-radical oxidation process. Journal of Hazardous Materials 2022, 423 , 127054.
  64. Wenjie Tian, Jingkai Lin, Huayang Zhang, Xiaoguang Duan, Hao Wang, Hongqi Sun, Shaobin Wang. Kinetics and mechanism of synergistic adsorption and persulfate activation by N-doped porous carbon for antibiotics removals in single and binary solutions. Journal of Hazardous Materials 2022, 423 , 127083.
  65. Qingqing Li, Jiadi Liu, Zhujuan Ren, Zikai Wang, Feifei Mao, Hua Wu, Rong Zhou, Yuanqing Bu. Catalytic degradation of antibiotic by Co nanoparticles encapsulated in nitrogen-doped nanocarbon derived from Co-MOF for promoted peroxymonosulfate activation. Chemical Engineering Journal 2022, 429 , 132269.
  66. Xing Zhang, Suhang Chen, Xiaoyan Lian, Shuai Dong, Hui Li, Kangzhen Xu. Efficient activation of peroxydisulfate by g-C3N4/Bi2MoO6 nanocomposite for enhanced organic pollutants degradation through non-radical dominated oxidation processes. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 2022, 607 , 684-697.
  67. Dongdong Wen, Xiaopin Guo, Qian Li, Rongbing Fu. Enhanced electrokinetically-delivered persulfate and alternating electric field induced thermal effect activated persulfate in situ for remediation of phenanthrene contaminated clay. Journal of Hazardous Materials 2022, 423 , 127199.
  68. Zonghao Liu, Hao Lan, Yuan Wang, Jinsheng Zhang, Jun Qin, Ruixue Zhang, Nan Dong. Highly efficient degradation of bisphenol A with persulfate activated by vacuum-ultraviolet/ultraviolet light (VUV/UV): Experiments and theoretical calculations. Chemical Engineering Journal 2022, 429 , 132485.
  69. Wen Jie Lee, Yueping Bao, Arvin Liangdy, Xiao Hu, Teik-Thye Lim. Insights into the synergistic role of catalytic ceramic membranes for ozone and peroxymonosulfate activation towards effective recalcitrant micropollutant degradation and mineralization. Chemical Engineering Journal 2022, 430 , 132921.
  70. Gang Wang, Huiling Liu, Jing Wang, Picheng Gong, Chen Cai, Xiaohu Dai, Peng Wang. Pretreatment of spiramycin fermentation residue by thermally activated peroxydisulfate for improving biodegradability: Insights into matrix disintegration and antibiotics degradation. Chemical Engineering Journal 2022, 427 , 130973.
  71. Zhen Yang, Yan Ma, Qing Zhou. Mechanism of polyhydroquinone coating iron/copper oxides for enhanced catalytic activity. Chemical Engineering Journal 2022, 427 , 131007.
  72. Qi Wang, Ying Zhang, Yutong Li, Jingyu Ren, Guangzhou Qu, Tiecheng Wang, Hanzhong Jia. Simultaneous Cu-EDTA oxidation decomplexation and Cr(VI) reduction in water by persulfate/formate system: Reaction process and mechanisms. Chemical Engineering Journal 2022, 427 , 131584.
  73. Tongcai Liu, Kai Yin, Nan Li, Hui Liu, Jiabin Chen, Xuefei Zhou, Yalei Zhang. Efficient activation of peroxymonosulfate by copper supported on polyurethane foam for contaminant degradation: Synergistic effect and mechanism. Chemical Engineering Journal 2022, 427 , 131741.
  74. Lihong Wang, Jin Jiang, Jun Ma, Suyan Pang, Tao Zhang. A review on advanced oxidation processes homogeneously initiated by copper(II). Chemical Engineering Journal 2022, 427 , 131721.
  75. Zhoujie Pi, Kunjie Hou, Fubing Yao, Li He, Shengjie Chen, Ziletao Tao, Puyu Zhou, Dongbo Wang, Xiaoming Li, Qi Yang. In-situ regeneration of tetracycline-saturated hierarchical porous carbon by peroxydisulfate oxidation process: Performance, mechanism and application. Chemical Engineering Journal 2022, 427 , 131749.
  76. Tao Zhou, Yi Han, Wei Xiang, Chen Wang, Xiaohui Wu, Juan Mao, Mingjie Huang. Revealing the heterogeneous activation mechanism of peroxydisulfate by CuO: the critical role of surface-binding organic substrates. Science of The Total Environment 2022, 802 , 149833.
  77. Hongxi Wang, Bing Liao, Mengyao Hu, Yulu Ai, Lijia Wen, Shuang Yang, Zhong Ye, Jie Qin, Guo Liu. Heterogeneous activation of peroxymonosulfate by natural chalcopyrite for efficient remediation of groundwater polluted by aged landfill leachate. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 2022, 300 , 120744.
  78. Fan Lai, Fu-Xiang Tian, Bin Xu, Wen-Kai Ye, Yu-Qiong Gao, Chen Chen, Hai-Bo Xing, Bo Wang, Meng-Jiao Xie, Xiao-Jun Hu. A comparative study on the degradation of phenylurea herbicides by UV/persulfate process: Kinetics, mechanisms, energy demand and toxicity evaluation associated with DBPs. Chemical Engineering Journal 2022, 428 , 132088.
  79. Huihui Wu, Jingjing Yan, Xin Xu, Qianhui Yuan, Jinhang Wang, Jun Cui, Aijun Lin. Synergistic effects for boosted persulfate activation in a designed Fe–Cu dual-atom site catalyst. Chemical Engineering Journal 2022, 428 , 132611.
  80. Teng-fei Hu, Si Chen, Qian Zhang, Jun-ming Hong. Efficiency and mechanism analysis of bisphenol A degradation by sulfur-doped graphene-catalyzed peroxydisulfate. Applied Surface Science 2022, 572 , 151429.
  81. Yankun Liu, Tian Qiu, Yanlin Wu, Shiyong Wang, Min Liu, Wenbo Dong. Remediation of soil contaminated with ibuprofen by persulfate activated with gallic acid and ferric iron. Chemical Engineering Journal 2021, 426 , 127653.
  82. Zhao Yang, Zhaowei Wang, Guiwei Liang, Xiaoli Zhang, Xiaoyun Xie. Catalyst bridging-mediated electron transfer for nonradical degradation of bisphenol A via natural manganese ore-cornstalk biochar composite activated peroxymonosulfate. Chemical Engineering Journal 2021, 426 , 131777.
  83. Xinyu Li, Xiaobo Min, Xiaoxian Hu, Zhi Jiang, Chaofang Li, Weichun Yang, Feiping Zhao. In-situ synthesis of highly dispersed Cu-CuxO nanoparticles on porous carbon for the enhanced persulfate activation for phenol degradation. Separation and Purification Technology 2021, 276 , 119260.
  84. Shishu Zhu, Chuanhao Li, Xiaobao Yang, Shaobin Wang, Xiaoguang Duan, Chao Jin. Oxidation of amines and their derivatives with persulfate without activation: Impact of mineral oxides and stoichiometric efficiency. Chemical Engineering Journal 2021, 426 , 131930.
  85. Chenju Liang, Sheng-Yu Yang. Foam flushing with soil vapor extraction for enhanced treatment of diesel contaminated soils in a one-dimensional column. Chemosphere 2021, 285 , 131471.
  86. Ning Liu, Jinliang Wang, Man Tian, Jianqiu Lei, Jinfeng Wang, Wenyan Shi, Xiaodong Zhang, Liang Tang. Boron nitride nanosheets decorated MIL-53(Fe) for efficient synergistic ibuprofen photocatalytic degradation by persulfate activation. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 2021, 603 , 270-281.
  87. Liu Fei, Shiying Ren, Ma Xijun, Nisar Ali, Zhang Jing, Jing Yi, Muhammad Bilal. Efficient removal of EDTA-chelated Cu(II) by zero-valent iron and peroxydisulfate: Mutual activation process. Separation and Purification Technology 2021, 279 , 119721.
  88. Pijun Duan, Jingwen Pan, Weiyan Du, Qinyan Yue, Baoyu Gao, Xing Xu. Activation of peroxymonosulfate via mediated electron transfer mechanism on single-atom Fe catalyst for effective organic pollutants removal. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 2021, 299 , 120714.
  89. Hongwei Luo, Yifeng Zeng, Ying Cheng, Dongqin He, Xiangliang Pan. Activation of peroxymonosulfate by iron oxychloride with hydroxylamine for ciprofloxacin degradation and bacterial disinfection. Science of The Total Environment 2021, 799 , 149506.
  90. Jie Zhong, Bin Yang, Fang-Zhou Gao, Qian Xiong, Yong Feng, Yu Li, Jin-Na Zhang, Guang-Guo Ying. Performance and mechanism in degradation of typical antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes by magnetic resin-mediated UV-Fenton process. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 2021, 227 , 112908.
  91. Yunde Liu, Yuanzheng Zhang, Aiguo Zhou, Minglu Li. Insights into carbon isotope fractionation on trichloroethene degradation in base activated persulfate process: The role of multiple reactive oxygen species. Science of The Total Environment 2021, 800 , 149371.
  92. Guimin Liu, Ting Zhang, Tian Wang, Hiromi Yamashita, Yixin Zhao, Xufang Qian. Peroxydisulfate activation by photo-generated charges on mesoporous carbon nitride for removal of chlorophenols. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 2021, 296 , 120370.
  93. Yangtao Wu, Ting Cai, Xiaojun Chen, Xiaodi Duan, Guangmei Xu, Lingjun Bu, Shiqing Zhou, Zhou Shi. Unveiling the interaction of epigallocatechin-3-gallate with peroxymonosulfate for degradation of bisphenol S: Two-stage kinetics and identification of reactive species. Separation and Purification Technology 2021, 274 , 119040.
  94. Xiuping Sun, Haiqiang Qi, Shiqin Mao, Zhirong Sun. Atrazine removal by peroxymonosulfate activated with magnetic CoFe [email protected] graphitic carbon encapsulated in chitosan carbonized microspheres. Chemical Engineering Journal 2021, 423 , 130169.
  95. Ziyang Chu, Tianhu Chen, Haibo Liu, Dong Chen, Xuehua Zou, Hanlin Wang, Fuwei Sun, Peixun Zhai, Min Xia, Meng Liu. Degradation of norfloxacin by calcite activating peroxymonosulfate: Performance and mechanism. Chemosphere 2021, 282 , 131091.
  96. Chien-Yu Chen, Yi-Chin Cho, Yi-Pin Lin. Activation of peroxydisulfate by carbon nanotube for the degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenol: Contributions of surface-bound radicals and direct electron transfer. Chemosphere 2021, 283 , 131282.
  97. Hongbo Ming, Danlei Wei, Yang Yang, Boqiang Chen, Can Yang, Jinshui Zhang, Yidong Hou. Photocatalytic activation of peroxymonosulfate by carbon quantum dots functionalized carbon nitride for efficient degradation of bisphenol A under visible-light irradiation. Chemical Engineering Journal 2021, 424 , 130296.
  98. Xiaoyan Ma, Liangjie Tang, Jing Deng, Zhanghua Liu, Xueyan Li, Peng Wang, Qingsong Li. Removal of saccharin by UV/persulfate process: Degradation kinetics, mechanism and DBPs formation. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry 2021, 420 , 113482.
  99. Guoliang Cao, Rupeng Wang, Yun Ju, Binghua Jing, Xiaoguang Duan, Zhimin Ao, Jie Jiang, Fanghua Li, Shih-Hsin Ho. Synchronous removal of emulsions and soluble organic contaminants via a microalgae-based membrane system: performance and mechanisms. Water Research 2021, 206 , 117741.
  100. Jiaxiang Ma, Ying Xu, Feiyun Sun, Xiaodong Chen, Wei Wang. Perspective for removing volatile organic compounds during solar‐driven water evaporation toward water production. EcoMat 2021, 9
Load more citations